Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology: Nutrition Flashcards


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created 10 years ago by sammiellama
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A brief overview of nutrition from a summer session Anatomy and Physiology course
Grade levels:
College: First year, College: Second year
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1

Define: nutrient

a substance that promotes normal growth, maintenance, and repair

2

What are the major nutrients?

carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
**other nutrients are: vitamins and minerals (technically speaking, water is included)

3

What is the molecule ultimately used by body cells to make ATP?

card image

Glucose

4

Excess glucose is converted to?

Glycogen or stored fat

5

What are referred to as "empty calorie" foods?

refined carbohydrate foods such as candy and soft drinks

6

What are the two essential fatty acids?

Linoleic and linolenic acid, found in most vegetables

7

What is the most abundant dietary lipid?

Triglycerides

8

What do dietary fats do that is so helpful for our body?

1. Help the body absorb vitamins
2. Major NRG fuel of hepatocytes & skeletal muscle
3. Component of myelin sheaths and cell membranes

9

Fatty deposits in adipose tissue provide:

1. Protective cushioning
2. Insulation
3. Storage of NRG

10

Dietary requirements for lipids?

Higher for infants and children than for adults due to the very active myelination in children

**American Heart Association suggests that: fat should represent less than 30% of one's caloric intae, saturated fats should be limited to 10% or less of one's total fat intake, and daily cholesterol intake should not exceed 200 mg

11

Proteins; complete and incomplete

Complete: eggs, milk, milk products, meat, and fish
Incomplete: legume, nuts, seeds, grains, and vegetables

**this is what the books contain as opposed to "Forks over Knives"... it's a conspiracy!!

12

What do proteins give us?

Essential amino acids and nitrogen

13

What are the two amino acids needed by infants?

Histidine and arginine

14

What vitamins are made by the body?

D, K, and B

15

What are the water-soluble vitamins?

B-complex and C

16

What does B12 require in order to be ingested?

Gastric intrinsic factor

17

What are the fat-soluble vitamins?

A,D,E, and K

18

What vitamins also act in an antioxidant cascade?

A,C, and E

*all face creams will have these vitamins because they provide an anti-aging aspect!! {vitamin A espe cially!}

19

Which vitamin can be harmful during pregnancy?

Vitamin A

20

What are the seven minerals required in moderate amounts? (must-know)

Calcium, phosphorous, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chloride, and magnesium

21

Which mineral salts harden bone?

Calcium, phosphorous, and magnesium

22

What minerals help maintain normal osmolarity, water balance, and are essential in nerve and muscle function?

Sodium and chloride

23

Absorptive and Postabsorptive states (in reference to a meal)

Absorptive: the time during and shortly after nutrient intake
Postabsorptive: the time when GI tract is empty, NRG sources are supplied by the breakdown of body reserves

24

Absorptive state:
(hint: A for A)

What is the major energy fuel?

Major metabolic thrust is ANABOLISM and NRG storage
(remember: you're trying to MAKE nrg stores)

Dietary glucose is the major NRG fuel

25

What is the body's major energy fuel?

Glucose

26

What are excess amino acids converted into?

They are deanimated and used for NRG or stored as fat in the liver

27

What controls the absorptive state?

Insulin

28

What is insulin stimulated by?

Increased blood glucose, elevated amino acid levels, and Gastrin/CCK/Secretin

29

Major metabolic thrust in postabsorptive state?

Catabolism

30

What form of energy do nervous tissues exclusively take?

Glucose

31

What is the liver the center of?

Metabolism

**people with fatty liver disease have a slow metabolism

32

Orexins:

powerful appetitue enhances

(post-chemo patients take these because they suffer from loss of appetite)
-- can also be SECRETLY given to bulimics and anorexics during their treatments!!

33

What part of our brain regulates food intake?

The HYPOTHALAMUS releases peptides that influence feeding behavior

34

Neuropeptide Y:

Causes a craving for carbohydrates

(after quitting the Atkin's diet, you commit carbicide because this builds up!)

"Y am I so hungry for carbs!!!"
"Y me!!", "say Yes to carbs!!"

35

Galanin:

Provides a craving for fats

36

GLP-1 and serotonin:

Makes us feel full and satisfied

37

What two hormones STIMULATE hunger?

Glucagon and epinephrine

(HUNGRY after sugary, "epi"c sex!) ;D

38

What two hormones DEPRESS hunger?

Insulin and cholecystokinin (CCK)

39

How does temperature affect eating behavior?

Increased body temperature may inhibit eating behavior

40

Do psychological factors affect eating behavior?

Yes, some psychological factors that have little to do with caloric balance can actually influence eating behavior

41

Why do we gain weight in winter!!

Natural instinct to create "blubber", and boredom!

(you can hide the gained blubber easily under sweaters as opposed to tank tops in the summer!)

42

Leptin:

Suppresses the secretion of neuropeptide Y. Leptin is secreted by the fat tissue and acts as an overall satiety signal

You eat so much even your fat cells give up on you! LOL.