Principles of General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry: Carbohydrates & Lipids Flashcards


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Sugars: monosaccharides, disac-, polysac- & starches
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1

______________ make up a large group of organic compounds and contain carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.

Hint: "carbon water" that consists of sugars & starches

Carbohydrates

2

Carbohydrates are the products of ____________, a reaction between sunlight, CO2, and chlorophyll.

CO2 + H2O + Energy -------> C6H12O6

Photosynthesis

3

Carbohydrates are made up of simple sugar building blocks called ______________.

It consists of _________, __________, and ____________.

Monosaccharides

Glucose, fructose, & galactose

4

_______________ are complex sugars that are made up of 2 monosaccharides.

It consists of __________ (fructose + glucose), _________ (glucose + glucose), & _________ (galactose + glucose).

Disaccharides

Sucrose, Maltose, & Lactose

5

_________________ also called glycans; large high-molecular weight molecules created when many monosaccharides combine.

It consists of _________ (found in grains), __________ (found in plants).

Polysaccharides

Starches, Celluose

6

_________ are made up of small molecules containing an amino group (NH2) & a carboxyl group (COOH).

Hint: They are essential to all living cells to keep us healthy & functioning properly.

Proteins

7

______ are insoluble in water (hydrophobic), oily to touch, and include fats & oils.

Lipids

8

___ are considered "good" cholesterol that removes excess fats from the blood.

Hint: It has lots of proteins with very little fat.

HDL (high-density lipoproteins)

9

___ are considered "bad" cholesterol that coats fats onto the inner lining of blood vessels.

Hint: It has lots of fat and very few proteins.

LDL (low-density lipoproteins)

10

____________ ____ have at least one double/triple bond in one of the fatty acids.

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Unsaturated fats

11

__________ ____ contain only single bonds that have been fully bonded to hydrogen atoms.

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Saturated fats

12
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A ____________ is an ester formed from glycerol & 3-fatty acids.

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Triglycerides

13

______-_ fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids, meaning they contain more than one double bond.

Hint: Healthy fats w/ 3 double bond @ 3rd carbon atom from end of hydrocarbon chain.

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Omega-3

14

_______-_ fatty acids is located between the 6th and 7th carbon atom (n-6) from the methyl end of the fatty acid (omega end).

Omega-6

15
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Identify name of structural formula.

Cis-2,6-dimethyl-3-heptene

C9H18