Metabolism and Energy balance
Glucostastic theory states...
Glucose metabolism by hypothalamic centers regulates food intake.
- ↓ blood glucose → stimulate feeding center & inhibit satiety center
- ↑ blood glucose → inhibit feeding center & stimulate satiety center(When glucose metabolism increases, the satiety center inhibits the feeding center)
Lipostatic theory purposes
Energy balance proposes that a signal from the body's fat stores to the brain modulates eating behavior so that the body maintains a particular weight
Which peptide is the hunger hormone, secreted by the stomach during fasting, increases hunger, and promotes release of growth hormone?
What measures heat production as a result of breaking down organic molecules?
What is the Amt of heat required to raise temp of 1L (1 kg) of H2O 1° C, at STP
Kilocalorie (kcal) = Calorie (C) = 1000 calories
What's the Amt of heat required to raise temp of 1mL (1 g) of H2O 1° C at STP
calorie = 1/1000 kcal
What measures oxygen consumption & CO₂ or heat production vs. energy metabolized?
What Measures energy expenditure per time, L O₂ consumed/day x 4.825 kcal/L O₂. Am I voluntarily doing something?
What measures the lowest amount of energy required by the bod,usually occurring when they are asleep?
Basal metabolic rate
Name 7 factors that can influence a person's metabolic rate?
Age, sex, lean muscle mass, activity, diet, hormones, and genetics
What is the measure of amount of carbon dioxide produced relative to the amount of oxygen consumed? Average=0.82 for US diet
The period of time following a meal, when the products of digestion are being absorbed from GI tract, used, and stored is called...
Fed state or absorptive state
Once nutrients from a recent meal are no longer in the bloodstream and available for use by the tissues released from storage, the body enters
Fasted or post-absorptive state
Excess amino acids in the diet, that are not used to make proteins, undergo
What happens to excess glucose in the body?
It undergoes Lipogenesis
What is the primary site of nutrient pools that are available for immediate use in the body?
What is the primary molecule used for Gluconeogenesis?
A process by which excess glucose is linked together and stored as glycogen in muscle and liver
How do you calculate a person's BMI?
Wgt (kg) / height2 (m) or wgt (lb) x 703/height^2 (in)
Which cholesterol is known as the "healthy cholesterol" and is the lipoprotein involved in cholesterol transport out of the plasma, removes cholesterol but delivers cholesterol to the liver for secretion(bile) and to steroid producing cells?
High density cholesterol(HDL)
Which cholesterol's carrier delivers cholesterol to cell
Low denesity cholesterol(LDL)
Which cells regulate insulin?
Pancreatic islets: B cells
Which cells regulate glucagon?
Pancreatic islets: a cells
What is the overall goal of the absorptive/fed state?
Insulin and nutrient storage, using storing mechanisms such as glycogeneis, lipogenesis, and protein sysnthesis and to prevent hyperglycemia.
What is the normal range for glucose state?
What is the overall goal of the fasting/postabsorptive state?
Glucagon and nutrient release, using mechanisms to break nutrients down such as glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, lipolysis, protein break down, and to prevent hypoglycemia.
Which system will stimulate release of insulin and influence B cells and also activate due to eating?
Which system will inhibit release of insulin and activate due to stress and also stimulate a cells so it will increase epinephrine from the adrenal medulla?
Which system will directly stimulate fat cells(adipocytes) and stimulates lipolysis?
Where is glucagon primarily active?
Glucagon actives all of the following increase glycogenolysis, increase gluconeogenesis, increase production of ketones except
No known effect on adipocytes
What hormone is a permissive horomone and is in the adrenal cortex and is necessary for glucagon to function fully, maintains normal enzyme levels and allows liver, adipose to function in postabsorptive state?
What hormone is located in the anterior pituitary and promotes protein production and growth
When some filtered glucose is not reabsorbed and is excreted in the urine what is this called?
The presene of additional solute loss(glucose) with accompanying water loss (loss of water in the urine due to unreaborbed solutes) is known as
Osmotic diuresis Mellitus- "Sweet"
The presence of the solvent loss without accompanying solute loss is known as
Insupidus"non sweet" water diuresis
Which type of diabetes lack the ability to produce insulin, autoimmune destruction of B cells?
Type 1 diabetes mellitus: insulin dependent diabetes( juvenile diabetes)
The center perceives the absence of intracellular glucose as starvation and allows the feeding center to increase food intake and increase appetite, the result is excessive eating
What decreases blood volume and blood pressure and increase plasma osmolarity?
Which disease is excessive thirst
Metabolic acidosis in diabetes has 2 potential sources
anaerobic metabolism and ketone body production
Which type of diabetes respond to beta cells but receptors ignore insulin, decreased sensitivity to insulin?
Type 2 diabetes mellitus: non-insulin dependent diabetes
Which hormone is produced in response to excess adipose tissue(adipoctye hormone)?
Which regulation occurs when you sit in the sun or in front of a fire "electromahnetic waves"
Which regulation is the transfer of heat between objects that are in physical contact with each other, touching the body?
Which regulation is "moving air or water" or the process in which heat is carried away by warm air rising from the body's surface.
Which heat loss from the body takes place as water evaporates at the skin's surface and in the respiratory tract, convert water from liquid to gaseous phase?
This equals heat gain =heat loss, maintains appropriate body temperature with thermoreceptors and sensory neurons are located in the peripheral(skin) and central(internal organs & hypothamalus) receptors
The motoring system(involuntary) monitors
This system is voluntary for heat gain and heat loss
These nuerons are responsible for heat loss and cutaneous blood vessel vasodilation
Cholinergic neurons- acetylocholine
These neurons are responsible for heat gain and non-shivering thermogenesis, vasoconstriction
A _____ raises the thermal set point and maintains a higher core temperature with endogenous pyrogen released from activated macro-phages
Body temperature becomes elevated and increases core temperature with no change in setpoint, excerise most common
A condition in which body temperature falls abnormally low and reduces enzymatic activity
Exposure to cold air or water
Improper functioning of thermo-regulating system- stroke, hypothyroidism, malnutrition, alcohol