Metabolism and Energy balance

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1

Glucostastic theory states...

Glucose metabolism by hypothalamic centers regulates food intake.

  • ↓ blood glucose → stimulate feeding center & inhibit satiety center
  • ↑ blood glucose → inhibit feeding center & stimulate satiety center(When glucose metabolism increases, the satiety center inhibits the feeding center)
2

Lipostatic theory purposes

Energy balance proposes that a signal from the body's fat stores to the brain modulates eating behavior so that the body maintains a particular weight

3

Which peptide is the hunger hormone, secreted by the stomach during fasting, increases hunger, and promotes release of growth hormone?

Ghrelin

4

What measures heat production as a result of breaking down organic molecules?

Direct Calorimetry

5

What is the Amt of heat required to raise temp of 1L (1 kg) of H2O 1° C, at STP

Kilocalorie (kcal) = Calorie (C) = 1000 calories

6

What's the Amt of heat required to raise temp of 1mL (1 g) of H2O 1° C at STP

calorie = 1/1000 kcal

7

What measures oxygen consumption & CO₂ or heat production vs. energy metabolized?

Indirect calorimetry

8

What Measures energy expenditure per time, L O₂ consumed/day x 4.825 kcal/L O₂. Am I voluntarily doing something?

Metabolic rate

9

What measures the lowest amount of energy required by the bod,usually occurring when they are asleep?

Basal metabolic rate

10

Name 7 factors that can influence a person's metabolic rate?

Age, sex, lean muscle mass, activity, diet, hormones, and genetics

11

What is the measure of amount of carbon dioxide produced relative to the amount of oxygen consumed? Average=0.82 for US diet

Respiratory quotient

12

The period of time following a meal, when the products of digestion are being absorbed from GI tract, used, and stored is called...

Fed state or absorptive state

13

Once nutrients from a recent meal are no longer in the bloodstream and available for use by the tissues released from storage, the body enters

Fasted or post-absorptive state

14

Excess amino acids in the diet, that are not used to make proteins, undergo

Gluconeogenesis

15

What happens to excess glucose in the body?

It undergoes Lipogenesis

16

What is the primary site of nutrient pools that are available for immediate use in the body?

Plasma

17

What is the primary molecule used for Gluconeogenesis?

Amino acids

18

A process by which excess glucose is linked together and stored as glycogen in muscle and liver

Glycogenesis

19

How do you calculate a person's BMI?

Wgt (kg) / height2 (m) or wgt (lb) x 703/height^2 (in)

20

Which cholesterol is known as the "healthy cholesterol" and is the lipoprotein involved in cholesterol transport out of the plasma, removes cholesterol but delivers cholesterol to the liver for secretion(bile) and to steroid producing cells?

High density cholesterol(HDL)

21

Which cholesterol's carrier delivers cholesterol to cell

Low denesity cholesterol(LDL)

22

Which cells regulate insulin?

Pancreatic islets: B cells

23

Which cells regulate glucagon?

Pancreatic islets: a cells

24

What is the overall goal of the absorptive/fed state?

Insulin and nutrient storage, using storing mechanisms such as glycogeneis, lipogenesis, and protein sysnthesis and to prevent hyperglycemia.

25

What is the normal range for glucose state?

60-120 mg/dL

26

What is the overall goal of the fasting/postabsorptive state?

Glucagon and nutrient release, using mechanisms to break nutrients down such as glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, lipolysis, protein break down, and to prevent hypoglycemia.

27

Which system will stimulate release of insulin and influence B cells and also activate due to eating?

Parasympathetic system

28

Which system will inhibit release of insulin and activate due to stress and also stimulate a cells so it will increase epinephrine from the adrenal medulla?

Sympathetic system

29

Which system will directly stimulate fat cells(adipocytes) and stimulates lipolysis?

Sympathetic system

30

Where is glucagon primarily active?

Liver

31

Glucagon actives all of the following increase glycogenolysis, increase gluconeogenesis, increase production of ketones except

No known effect on adipocytes

32

What hormone is a permissive horomone and is in the adrenal cortex and is necessary for glucagon to function fully, maintains normal enzyme levels and allows liver, adipose to function in postabsorptive state?

Cortisol

33

What hormone is located in the anterior pituitary and promotes protein production and growth

Growth hormone

34

When some filtered glucose is not reabsorbed and is excreted in the urine what is this called?

Glucosuria

35

The presene of additional solute loss(glucose) with accompanying water loss (loss of water in the urine due to unreaborbed solutes) is known as

Osmotic diuresis Mellitus- "Sweet"

36

The presence of the solvent loss without accompanying solute loss is known as

Insupidus"non sweet" water diuresis

37

Which type of diabetes lack the ability to produce insulin, autoimmune destruction of B cells?

Type 1 diabetes mellitus: insulin dependent diabetes( juvenile diabetes)

38

The center perceives the absence of intracellular glucose as starvation and allows the feeding center to increase food intake and increase appetite, the result is excessive eating

Polyphagia

39

What decreases blood volume and blood pressure and increase plasma osmolarity?

Polyuria

40

Which disease is excessive thirst

Polyphagia

41

Metabolic acidosis in diabetes has 2 potential sources

anaerobic metabolism and ketone body production

42

Which type of diabetes respond to beta cells but receptors ignore insulin, decreased sensitivity to insulin?

Type 2 diabetes mellitus: non-insulin dependent diabetes

43

Which hormone is produced in response to excess adipose tissue(adipoctye hormone)?

Resistan

44

Which regulation occurs when you sit in the sun or in front of a fire "electromahnetic waves"

Radiation

45

Which regulation is the transfer of heat between objects that are in physical contact with each other, touching the body?

Conduction

46

Which regulation is "moving air or water" or the process in which heat is carried away by warm air rising from the body's surface.

Convection

47

Which heat loss from the body takes place as water evaporates at the skin's surface and in the respiratory tract, convert water from liquid to gaseous phase?

Evaporation

48

This equals heat gain =heat loss, maintains appropriate body temperature with thermoreceptors and sensory neurons are located in the peripheral(skin) and central(internal organs & hypothamalus) receptors

Thermoneutral zone

49

The motoring system(involuntary) monitors

Shivering thermogenesis

50

This system is voluntary for heat gain and heat loss

Motor cortex

51

These nuerons are responsible for heat loss and cutaneous blood vessel vasodilation

Cholinergic neurons- acetylocholine

52

These neurons are responsible for heat gain and non-shivering thermogenesis, vasoconstriction

Adrenergic neurons

53

A _____ raises the thermal set point and maintains a higher core temperature with endogenous pyrogen released from activated macro-phages

Fever

54

Body temperature becomes elevated and increases core temperature with no change in setpoint, excerise most common

Hyperthermia

55

A condition in which body temperature falls abnormally low and reduces enzymatic activity

Hypothermia

56

Exposure to cold air or water

Primary hypothermia

57

Improper functioning of thermo-regulating system- stroke, hypothyroidism, malnutrition, alcohol

Secondary hypothermia