what picks up sensory information?
what are the general senses?
nociceptors, thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors
what are the special senses?
eye, smell, taste, hearing, balance general respiratory
where in the nasal cavity are olfactory epithelium present?
beneath the mucosa
cribriform plate is part of the ethmoid bone
papillae are located on the dorsum of tongue
which three papillae types have taste buds?
fungiform, foliate, vallate
which cranial nerves carry impulses of taste?
CNs VI, IX, and X
in which part of the brain do these impulses gather and synapse before being transported to the cerebral cortex?
in the nucleus solitaries of the medulla oblongata
in which organ are receptors of hearing and equilibrium located?
the organ of corti
what meatus is the main component of the outer ear?
external acoustic meatus
what membrane divides the outer from the middle ear?
what three bones of the middle ear transmits sound waves to the inner ear?
malleus, incus, and stapes
what are the structures in the inner ear coordinate equilibrium and hearing respectively?
which two nerves join to form the vestibulocochlear nerve?
vestibular fibres and clochlear
in which two nuclei of the brainstem do neurons in theses two nerves synapse, before being shuttled to the cortex?
clochlear nuclei and motor output to cranial nerve nuclei
what nerve is responsible for vision?
what are two chambers of the eye?
anterior-cornea to iris and posterior-iris to lens chambers
what are two cavities of the eye?
anterior and posterior
what are the layers of the eye?
fibrous tunic-outer layer
vascular tunic-middle layer
neural tunic-inner layer
what are the two parts of the fibrous tunic in the eye?
sclera and cornea
what are the three parts of the vascular tunic of the eye?
choroid, ciliary body, and iris
what is the role of the three parts?
the iris-consists of blood vessels, pigment, and smooth muscles
the ciliary body connected to suspensory ligaments which are connected to the lens
the choroid-inner most attaches to the outermost portion of the retina
what are two parts of the neural tunic of the eye?
pigmented layer and neural layer
autonomic nervous system
is a part of the peripheral nervous system that controls visceral functions which occur below the level of conciousness
autonomic nervous system
ANS innervates smooth muscle, glands and cardiac muscle, generally autonomous, usually two neurons, preganglionic neurons, they synapse with cell bodies of postganglionic neurons, divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
what nerves carry the cranial outflow?
facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves
what is in the lateral horn of grey matter s2 to s4 segments of the spinal cord?
the cranial outflow of the PNS in cranial nerves 3, 7, and 9 have distinct ganglia away from the target organ
PNS outflow in cranial outflow in cranial nerve 10, as well as that from the sacral region s2-s4 have ganglia really close to the target organ
what are the effects of PNS?
iris, heart rate, bronchi, gut/bladder wall, gut/bladder sphincter
cell bodies of preganglionic neurons located in lateral horns of grey matter T1 through L2
regardless of the location of the target organ, all SNS fibers come from this defined segment of spinal cord
the ganglia in the SNS are of two types 1)paravertebral and 2)collateral ganglia
major organ of the sympathetic nervous system
is a series of glands each of which secretes a different hormone
a chemical released by a cell, a tissue, or an organ in one part of the body that affects cells in other parts of the organism by altering metabolism
have ducts into which product secreted
usually ductless. product secreted into blood
primary endocrine organs are
the sole or major function of the organ is synthesis, storage and secretion of hormones
secondary endocrine tissues are
clusters of endocrine cells within other tissues for example heart and kidney
different classes of hormones
amines, proteins and peptides, and steroids
in which cranial bone is the sella tursica
a portal vascular system runs between two capillary beds
neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus secrete releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones to the anterior pituitary via the pituitary cirulation
the anterior pituitary produces both tropic and non tropic hormones
each tropic hormone acts on its target endocrine tissue to stimulate release of other hormones
non tropic hormones
produced by the anterior pituitary
highly vascularized and secrete thyroxine and triiodothyronine
release parathyroid hormone which increases calcium levels in blood
the different zones of the cortex
zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculate, zona reticularis
what hormones are synthesized in them?
mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, glucocorticoids and androgens, epinephrine, norepinephrine
what hormones are found in the medulla?
the exocrine in the pancreas forms most of the organ and secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum
the endocrine in the pancreas part occurs as islets of Langerhans, embedded within the former
beta cells secrete insulin
what hormones are synthesized in the ovaries and testes
what are 2 main types of cells in the body
gametes and somatic cells
functions of the skin
regulates body temperature and prevents loss of essential body fluids
what are three types of cartilage in the adult body
hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilages
what is the structural unit of bone
what gives bones rigidity
one bone in the axial skeleton
components of the appendicular skeleton
8 carpal and 5 metacarpal
what bones form the pelvis
two coxal bones, sacrum, and coccyx
what bones form the thigh
femur and patella
7 tarsals and 5 metatarsals
occur when two or more bones meet
what are the three classes of joints classified by function
point of muscle attachment that remains stationary
point of muscle attachment that is moveable
chiefly responsible for producing a particular movement
actions oppose the action of the agonist
assist the prime mover in performing an action
seperates abdominal from thoracic cavities