a&p final

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created 4 years ago by maggiearvesen
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1

what picks up sensory information?

sensory receptors

2

what are the general senses?

nociceptors, thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors

3

what are the special senses?

eye, smell, taste, hearing, balance general respiratory

4

where in the nasal cavity are olfactory epithelium present?

beneath the mucosa

5

cribriform plate is part of the ethmoid bone

...

6

papillae are located on the dorsum of tongue

...

7

which three papillae types have taste buds?

fungiform, foliate, vallate

8

which cranial nerves carry impulses of taste?

CNs VI, IX, and X

9

in which part of the brain do these impulses gather and synapse before being transported to the cerebral cortex?

in the nucleus solitaries of the medulla oblongata

10

in which organ are receptors of hearing and equilibrium located?

the organ of corti

11

what meatus is the main component of the outer ear?

external acoustic meatus

12

what membrane divides the outer from the middle ear?

tympanic membrane

13

what three bones of the middle ear transmits sound waves to the inner ear?

malleus, incus, and stapes

14

what are the structures in the inner ear coordinate equilibrium and hearing respectively?

canals

15

which two nerves join to form the vestibulocochlear nerve?

vestibular fibres and clochlear

16

in which two nuclei of the brainstem do neurons in theses two nerves synapse, before being shuttled to the cortex?

clochlear nuclei and motor output to cranial nerve nuclei

17

what nerve is responsible for vision?

optic nerve

18

what are two chambers of the eye?

anterior-cornea to iris and posterior-iris to lens chambers

19

what are two cavities of the eye?

anterior and posterior

20

what are the layers of the eye?

fibrous tunic-outer layer

vascular tunic-middle layer

neural tunic-inner layer

21

what are the two parts of the fibrous tunic in the eye?

sclera and cornea

22

what are the three parts of the vascular tunic of the eye?

choroid, ciliary body, and iris

23

what is the role of the three parts?

the iris-consists of blood vessels, pigment, and smooth muscles

the ciliary body connected to suspensory ligaments which are connected to the lens

the choroid-inner most attaches to the outermost portion of the retina

24

what are two parts of the neural tunic of the eye?

pigmented layer and neural layer

25

autonomic nervous system

is a part of the peripheral nervous system that controls visceral functions which occur below the level of conciousness

26

autonomic nervous system

ANS innervates smooth muscle, glands and cardiac muscle, generally autonomous, usually two neurons, preganglionic neurons, they synapse with cell bodies of postganglionic neurons, divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems

27

what nerves carry the cranial outflow?

facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves

28

what is in the lateral horn of grey matter s2 to s4 segments of the spinal cord?

sacral outflow

29

the cranial outflow of the PNS in cranial nerves 3, 7, and 9 have distinct ganglia away from the target organ

...

30

PNS outflow in cranial outflow in cranial nerve 10, as well as that from the sacral region s2-s4 have ganglia really close to the target organ

...

31

what are the effects of PNS?

iris, heart rate, bronchi, gut/bladder wall, gut/bladder sphincter

32

cell bodies of preganglionic neurons located in lateral horns of grey matter T1 through L2

...

33

regardless of the location of the target organ, all SNS fibers come from this defined segment of spinal cord

...

34

the ganglia in the SNS are of two types 1)paravertebral and 2)collateral ganglia

...

35

adrenal medulla

major organ of the sympathetic nervous system

36

endocrine system

is a series of glands each of which secretes a different hormone

37

hormone

a chemical released by a cell, a tissue, or an organ in one part of the body that affects cells in other parts of the organism by altering metabolism

38

exocrine

have ducts into which product secreted

39

endocrine

usually ductless. product secreted into blood

40

primary endocrine organs are

the sole or major function of the organ is synthesis, storage and secretion of hormones

41

secondary endocrine tissues are

clusters of endocrine cells within other tissues for example heart and kidney

42

different classes of hormones

amines, proteins and peptides, and steroids

43

in which cranial bone is the sella tursica

sphenoid bone

44

a portal vascular system runs between two capillary beds

...

45

neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus secrete releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones to the anterior pituitary via the pituitary cirulation

...

46

the anterior pituitary produces both tropic and non tropic hormones

...

47

tropic hormone

each tropic hormone acts on its target endocrine tissue to stimulate release of other hormones

48

non tropic hormones

produced by the anterior pituitary

49

thyroid gland

highly vascularized and secrete thyroxine and triiodothyronine

50

parathyroid glands

release parathyroid hormone which increases calcium levels in blood

51

the different zones of the cortex

zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculate, zona reticularis

52

what hormones are synthesized in them?

mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, glucocorticoids and androgens, epinephrine, norepinephrine

53

what hormones are found in the medulla?

norepinephrine

54

the exocrine in the pancreas forms most of the organ and secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum

...

55

the endocrine in the pancreas part occurs as islets of Langerhans, embedded within the former

...

56

beta cells secrete insulin

...

57

what hormones are synthesized in the ovaries and testes

luteinizing hormones

58

what are 2 main types of cells in the body

gametes and somatic cells

59

functions of the skin

regulates body temperature and prevents loss of essential body fluids

60

what are three types of cartilage in the adult body

hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilages

61

what is the structural unit of bone

osteon

62

what gives bones rigidity

osseous tissue

63

one bone in the axial skeleton

ribs

64

components of the appendicular skeleton

girdles

65

8 carpal and 5 metacarpal

...

66

what bones form the pelvis

two coxal bones, sacrum, and coccyx

67

what bones form the thigh

femur and patella

68

7 tarsals and 5 metatarsals

...

69

joints

occur when two or more bones meet

70

what are the three classes of joints classified by function

synarthrosis-immovable

amphiarthrosis-little movement

diarthrosis-freely moveable

71

origin

point of muscle attachment that remains stationary

72

insertion

point of muscle attachment that is moveable

73

agonist

chiefly responsible for producing a particular movement

74

antagonists

actions oppose the action of the agonist

75

synergist

assist the prime mover in performing an action

76

diaphram

seperates abdominal from thoracic cavities