If a tRNA codon had an AGC codon, it would attach to a ________ mRNA codon.
Phospholipids form a bilayer that is largely impermeable to water-soluble molecules is the main principle of what?
The fluid mosaic model of cell membrane structure.
Pollex refers to
Section that divides the body into left and right.
Histology is the study of
Cell junctions that promote the coordinated activity of cells by physically binding them together into a cell community.
desmosomes, gap junctions and tight junctions
The heart lies in the _______ cavity.
A red blood cell in pure water would ____________ and ________.
Structures that are fingerlike projections that greatly increase the absorbing surface of cells?
________________ contain some of the DNA and RNA code necessary for their own function.
Organize the mitotic spindle in cell division.
In which cavities are the lungs located?
pleural, ventral and thoracic
Passive membrane transport processes include
movement of a substance down its concentration gradient.
The anatomical position is characterized by all the following except....
1) body erect
2) thumbs pointed laterally, away from the body.
3) arms at sides
D) palms turned posteriorly
Palms turned posteriorly.
The RNA responsible for bringing the amino acids to the "factory" site for protein formation is __________.
In certain kids of muscle cells, calcium ions are stored in _______________.
the smooth ER
This produces nucleus replication.
The main component of cytosol is _____________.
The phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cell.
The specific name for the hip region.
Receptor mediated endocytosis
how some hormones enter cells
___________ are folded RNAs that act as switches to turn protein synthesis on or off in response to the presence or absence of ubiquitins.
Enhancement of labor contractions are an example of what type of feedback mechanism?
Positive feedback mechanism
A cut made diagonally between the vertical and horizontal.
What is the purpose of negative feedback mechanisms?
to prevent sudden severe changes within the body.
T or F? Messenger RNA, Transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA play a role in protein synthesis.
If cells are put in a hypertonic solution containing a solute to which the membrane is impermeable, what could happen?
The cells will lose water and shrink.
are able to detoxify substances with enzymatic action.
DNA replication takes place during which phase of the cell cycle?
If the nucleotide or base sequence of the DNA strand used as a template for messenger RNA synthesis is ACGTT, then what would be the sequence of bases in the corresponding mRNA?
Posterior side of the patella.
lines the pericardial cavity
the abdominal regions that are lateral to the umbilical region
left and right lumbar regions
the abdominal regions that are lateral to the epigastric region
left and right hypochondriac regions
When the body maintains a relatively stable internal environment.
spaces within joints
General purpose of negative and positive feedback?
Type of feedback mechanism that increases the original stimulus.
______________ is always from areas of greater to areas of lesser concentration.
The _______________ ________ has as many chromosomes as the parent cell after mitotic cell division.
First phase of mitosis.
Second phase of mitosis.
Third phase of mitosis.
Fourth phase of mitosis.
The ____________ region is located superior to the umbilical region.
Are DNA transcription and DNA replication the same?
making a partial copy of DNA; transfers DNA gene base sequence to a complementary base sequence of an mRNA (it transcribes)
DNA helices begin unwinding from the nucleosomes, helicase untwists the double helix and exposes the complementary chains, the Y shaped site of replication is the replication fork, each nucleotide strand serves as a template for building a new complementary strand
Resting state of body cells exhibit a resting membrane potential value of _____________.
-40mV to -90mV
Lungs perform an _____________ function in the body.
The substance released at axon terminals to propagate a nervous impulse is called this.
Type of cartilage found in the outer ear.
Schwann cells are functionally similiar to these.
Composed of fibers and ground substance.
Immediately after an action potential has peaked, which cellular gates open?
Which ion channel opens in response to a change in membrane potential and participates in the generation and conduction of action potentials?
voltage gated channels
junction or point of close contact between neurons; a nerve impulse
Period after an initial stimulus when a neuron is not sensitive to another stimulus.
absolute refractory period
3 main components of connective tissue
ground substance, fibers and cells
Organized groups of cells (plus their intercellular substances) that have a common purpose.
3 cell types that are seen in areolar tissue.
macrophages, mast cells and fibroblasts
The fiber type that gives connective tissue great tensile strength.
Chondrocytes are found in this type of tissue.
Role of acetylcholinesterase
destroys ACh a brief period after its release from axon endings
connective tissue types
blood, skeletal, adipose, blood
A well vascularized and highly cellular tissue type.
This type of epithelium appears to have 2 or 3 layers of cells, but all the cells are in contact with the basement membrane.
Part of neuron that conducts impulses away from its cell body is called this.
What are ciliated CNS nuroglia that play an active role in moving cerebrospinal fluid called?
How is hyaline cartilage different from elastic or fibrocartilage?
Fibers are not normally visible.
Mammary glands exhibit a glandular type called
Sweat glands are this type of gland.
Generally speaking, exocrine; more specifically, eccrine; apocrine in the genital areas
An excitatory neurotransmitter secreted by motor neurons innervating skeletal muscle.
an IPSP (inhibitory postsynaptic potential) is associated with this.
CNS refers to these.
brain and spinal cord
Nervous system integrative function
analyzes sensory information, stores information and makes decisions.
anchor neurons to blood vessels, control the chemical environment around neurons and support and brace neurons
A Schwann cell that enfolds one or more axons of the peripheral nervous system; in myelinated fibers, its plasma membrane forms the lamellae of myelin
Glands, such as the thyroid, that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than through ducts are classified as____________.
These cells are amitotic.
Tissue that has lacunae, calcium salts and blood vessels.
first step in cell repair
epithelial tissue has a basement membrane
can be called postsynaptic potentials, they're shortlived, and they can form on receptor endings
The primary function of this tissue is nutrient storage.
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium can be found here.
lining of respiratory tract
What is not found inf the matrix of cartilage but not bone?
What type of tissue arises from all three embryonic germ layers
Autonomic nervous system
motor fibers that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
inability to absorb digested nutrients and secrete mucus might indicate a disorder in which tissue
a(n) _______________________occurs if the inhibitory effect is greater than the excitatory, causing hyperpolarization of the membrane
inhibitory postsynaptic potental
Does a nerve impulse occur if the excitatory and inhibitory effects are equal?
a (n) _____________________ occurs if the excitatory effect is greater than the inhibitory effect but less than threshold
excitatory postsynaptic potential
In what way does the interior surface of a cell membrane of a resting (nonconducting) neuron differ from the external environment?
The interior is negatively charged and contains less sodium.
_______________ are rapid, automatic responses to stimuli.
Nervous tissue consists mainly of __________________.
Myelination of the nerve fibers in the CNS is the job of the ______________.
Can strong stimuli cause the amplitude of action potentials generated to increase?
During ________________, the inside of a neuron's membrane becomes less negative.
The shock absorbing pads between the vertebrae are formed of ____________.
Depending on the functional state of the bladder, the ___________ ___________ may resemble stratified squamous or stratified cuboidal epithelium.
What types of tissue have the least amount of regeneration potential?
Which type of fiber transmits nerve impulses faster? Large diameter fibers or small diameter fibers?
large diameter fibers
Area of the cortex that is responsible for sensations of a full bladder and the feeling that your lungs will burst when you hold your breath for too long.
visceral sensory cortex
After axonal injury, regeneration in the peripheral nerves is guided by the
Cells that line the ventricles of the brain.
Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in ______________.
the dorsal root of the spinal cord
Regeneration within the CNS is prevented due to
growth inhibiting proteins of oligodendrocytes
Spinal nerves exiting the cord from the level of L4 to S4 form the __________.
Which brain waves are not normal for awake adults but are common for children?
Pressure, pain, temperature receptors in the skin are
Preparing the body for the "fight-or-flight" response is the role of the
sympathetic nervous system
Starting at the spinal cord, the subdivisions of the brachial plexus are (in order):
roots, trunks, divisions, and cords
An individual accidentally transected the spinal cord between T1 and L1.
Vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in this.
The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of this.
the sympathetic stimulation.
The IPSP is associated with this.
Potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain are selectively detected by these.
The ____________ is the thermostat of the body becauses it regulates temperature.
The abducens nerve supplies innervation to the ______________________
lateral rectus muscle of the eye.
A reflex that causes muscle relaxation and lengthening in response to muscle tension is called a _____________ __________.
Golgi tendon reflex
Mixed cranial nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers do not include what type of nerve type?
olfactory (sense only) and optic
Are skeletal muscle effectors directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?
Hemorrhage causes a lowering of blood pressure due to a reduction in cardiac output.
True because of reduced resistance
The P wave of a regular electrocardiogram indicates____________.
______________ connects the two atria in the fetal heart.
Most abundant plasma protein.
average normal pH range of blood
Which tunic of an artery contains endothelium?
If cardiac muscle is deprived of its normal blood supply, damage would primarily result from ___________.
decreased delivery of O2
Symptoms of polycythemia
increased blood volume, high blood pressure, high hematocrit, and increased blood viscosity
A characteristic that all leukocytes have in common.
allow the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells
_________ _________ is the site of red cell production in throughout adult life.
Red bone marrow
Hypoxia of the EPO producing cells triggers ____________.
__________ _________ is systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure.
During ventricle systole, what vessels receive blood?
Aorta and pulmonary trunk
Distributing arteries are also known as the
When neither anti-A sera nor anti-B sera clot on a blood plate with donor blood, the blood type is _____________.
___________ carry blood away from the heart.
Normal heart sounds are caused by what activity in the heart.
The CLOSING of the valves (not the opening).
Blood within the pulmonary veins returns to the
_______ _________ increases as blood viscosity increases.
Factors that aid venous return in the body.
1) activity of skeletal muscles, 2) pressure changes in the thorax, and 3) venous valves
Which ventricular wall is thicker?
The _________ ___________ is closed when the ventricle is in systole.
Parent cell for all formed elements of blood.
Pluripotent stem cell (hemocytoblast)
Has gap junctions that allow it to act as a functional synctium.
When semilunar valves are open the ventricles are in ___________.
No visible cytoplasmic granules are visible in these leukocytes.
Correct blood cell development phase:
proerythroblast, late erythroblast, normoblast, reticulocyte
function of platelets
stick to damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break
During the period of ventricular filling this happens...
blood flows passively through the atria and the open AV valves into the ventricles
Are fenestrated capillaries are not found here...
brain. The blood brain barrier includes other capillaries.
What organ of the body regulates erythrocyte production?
4 steps of blood clot formation
formation of thromboplastin, prothrombin is converted into thrombin, fibrinogen is converted to fibrin, and clot retraction
A ________ ________ ________ increases end diastolic volume, stroke volume and force of contraction.
slow heart rate
Pacemaker of the heart.
Leukopenia is an abnormally ___number of leukocytes.
How many molecules of oxygen can a hemoglobin molecule transport?
_____________ is the widening of the lumen due to smooth muscle relaxation.
_____________ increase in number when a parasitic invasion occurs.
Autonomic regulation of the heart rate is via two reflex centers in the _____________.
As pressure in the aorta rises due to artherosclerosis, more ventricular pressure is required to open the __________ _________.
A person who can trace a picture of a bicycle with her finger but could not recognize it as a bicycle most likely has damage in this part of her brain.
visual association area
Broca's area is associated with this.
The blood brain barrier is effective against
metabolic waste such as urea
Pupil dilation is the result of _________ stimulation.
Salivation, increased peristalsis, and elimination of urine are examples of __________ stimulation.
Nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS only are _________ _________.
Lens accommodation for close vision is an example of __________ stimulation.
Is the medulla directly involved with memory?
Second order neurons of both the specific and nonspecific ascending pathways terminate in the __________.
Cranial nerves that have neural connections with the tongue includes these...
facial, glossopharyngeal, and trigeminal
Category of memory associated with playing the piano.
Function of the skeletal system
Provides protection; Calcium storage; Provides structure and stability; Provides and facilitates movement; provides a series of levers for muscles; triglyceride storage; red blood cell formation
Function of the endocrine system
Slow communication system;
Function of the nervous system
Controlling and communication center within the body; by electrical impulses and chemicals
Function of the integumentary system
Function of the reproductive system
1) receptor, 2) sensory neuron, 3) integration center, 4) motor neuron, 5) effector
Only ________ ________ form plexuses.
How many spinal nerves?
How many cervical nerves?
How many thoracic nerves?
How many lumbar nerves?
How many sacral nerves?
How many coccyl nerves?
Blood vessel creation; occurs when short term autoregulation cannot meet tissue nutrient requirements; common in higher altitude areas
Are rods color or black/white photoreceptors?
Black and white
Spinal reflexes are an example of _________ processing.
Percentage of our blood that is plasma.
Most common type of blood capillary.
An example of immunity that IS NOT innate.
What type of capillary is common in the kidneys and small intestine?
fenestrated (like a window)
Arterial problem that results in a loss of elasticity of artery walls.
Abnormal and irregular dilations of superficial veins are called
Tonsils, Peyer's Patches and appendix are all associated with this.
The spleen is rich with which cell type?
macrophages (for blood filtering and cleaning)
The arterial side of a __________ _______________ pushes out fluid faster than the venous side can retrieve it.
________ are the only blood vessels with valves.
Veins (v and v)
The most permeable capillaries are________________.
Peyer's patches are clusters of lymphoid tissue found primarily in the ___________ ___________.
small intestine (ileum)
How many liters of fluid are lost to the tissue spaces every 24 hours and are returned to the bloodstream as lymph?
Which pathway works faster in clotting...extrinsic factor or intrinsic factor?
What is required for the extrinsic pathway to work?
prevents backflow of blood into the left ventricle
aortic semilunar valve
prevents backflow of blood into the right ventricle
pulmonary semilunar valve
role of the atrioventricular node (AV node)
slow down impulses so that the atria can contract to fill the adjacent ventricles with blood