Final Review

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Anatomy & Physiology
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1

If a tRNA codon had an AGC codon, it would attach to a ________ mRNA codon.

UCG

2

Phospholipids form a bilayer that is largely impermeable to water-soluble molecules is the main principle of what?

The fluid mosaic model of cell membrane structure.

3

Pollex refers to

thumb.

4

Section that divides the body into left and right.

Sagittal.

5

Histology is the study of

tissues.

6

Cell junctions that promote the coordinated activity of cells by physically binding them together into a cell community.

desmosomes, gap junctions and tight junctions

7

The heart lies in the _______ cavity.

pericardial

8

A red blood cell in pure water would ____________ and ________.

swell, burst

9

Structures that are fingerlike projections that greatly increase the absorbing surface of cells?

microvilli

10

________________ contain some of the DNA and RNA code necessary for their own function.

mitochondria

11

Organize the mitotic spindle in cell division.

centrioles

12

In which cavities are the lungs located?

pleural, ventral and thoracic

13

Passive membrane transport processes include

movement of a substance down its concentration gradient.

14

The anatomical position is characterized by all the following except....

1) body erect

2) thumbs pointed laterally, away from the body.

3) arms at sides

D) palms turned posteriorly

Palms turned posteriorly.

15

The RNA responsible for bringing the amino acids to the "factory" site for protein formation is __________.

tRNA

16

In certain kids of muscle cells, calcium ions are stored in _______________.

the smooth ER

17

This produces nucleus replication.

Mitosis

18

The main component of cytosol is _____________.

water

19

The phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cell.

plasma membrane

20

The specific name for the hip region.

coxal

21

Receptor mediated endocytosis

how some hormones enter cells

22

___________ are folded RNAs that act as switches to turn protein synthesis on or off in response to the presence or absence of ubiquitins.

Riboswitches

23

Enhancement of labor contractions are an example of what type of feedback mechanism?

Positive feedback mechanism

24

A cut made diagonally between the vertical and horizontal.

oblique

25

What is the purpose of negative feedback mechanisms?

to prevent sudden severe changes within the body.

26

T or F? Messenger RNA, Transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA play a role in protein synthesis.

True

27

If cells are put in a hypertonic solution containing a solute to which the membrane is impermeable, what could happen?

The cells will lose water and shrink.

28

Peroxisomes

are able to detoxify substances with enzymatic action.

29

DNA replication takes place during which phase of the cell cycle?

interphase

30

If the nucleotide or base sequence of the DNA strand used as a template for messenger RNA synthesis is ACGTT, then what would be the sequence of bases in the corresponding mRNA?

UGCAA

31

Posterior side of the patella.

popliteal

32

parietal pericardium

lines the pericardial cavity

33

the abdominal regions that are lateral to the umbilical region

left and right lumbar regions

34

the abdominal regions that are lateral to the epigastric region

left and right hypochondriac regions

35

When the body maintains a relatively stable internal environment.

homeostasis

36

spaces within joints

synovial cavities

37

General purpose of negative and positive feedback?

maintain homeostasis

38

Type of feedback mechanism that increases the original stimulus.

positive feedback

39

______________ is always from areas of greater to areas of lesser concentration.

diffusion

40

The _______________ ________ has as many chromosomes as the parent cell after mitotic cell division.

daughter cell

41

First phase of mitosis.

prophase

42

Second phase of mitosis.

metaphase

43

Third phase of mitosis.

anaphase

44

Fourth phase of mitosis.

telophase

45

The ____________ region is located superior to the umbilical region.

epigastric

46

Are DNA transcription and DNA replication the same?

No.

47

DNA transcription

making a partial copy of DNA; transfers DNA gene base sequence to a complementary base sequence of an mRNA (it transcribes)

48

DNA replication

DNA helices begin unwinding from the nucleosomes, helicase untwists the double helix and exposes the complementary chains, the Y shaped site of replication is the replication fork, each nucleotide strand serves as a template for building a new complementary strand

49

Resting state of body cells exhibit a resting membrane potential value of _____________.

-40mV to -90mV

50

Lungs perform an _____________ function in the body.

excretory

51

The substance released at axon terminals to propagate a nervous impulse is called this.

neurotransmitter

52

Type of cartilage found in the outer ear.

elastic

53

Schwann cells are functionally similiar to these.

oligodendrocytes

54

Composed of fibers and ground substance.

matrix

55

Immediately after an action potential has peaked, which cellular gates open?

potassium

56

Which ion channel opens in response to a change in membrane potential and participates in the generation and conduction of action potentials?

voltage gated channels

57

synapse

junction or point of close contact between neurons; a nerve impulse

58

Period after an initial stimulus when a neuron is not sensitive to another stimulus.

absolute refractory period

59

3 main components of connective tissue

ground substance, fibers and cells

60

Organized groups of cells (plus their intercellular substances) that have a common purpose.

tissue

61

3 cell types that are seen in areolar tissue.

macrophages, mast cells and fibroblasts

62

The fiber type that gives connective tissue great tensile strength.

collagen

63

Chondrocytes are found in this type of tissue.

cartilage

64

Role of acetylcholinesterase

destroys ACh a brief period after its release from axon endings

65

connective tissue types

blood, skeletal, adipose, blood

66

A well vascularized and highly cellular tissue type.

muscle tissue

67

This type of epithelium appears to have 2 or 3 layers of cells, but all the cells are in contact with the basement membrane.

pseudostratified columnar

68

Part of neuron that conducts impulses away from its cell body is called this.

axon

69

What are ciliated CNS nuroglia that play an active role in moving cerebrospinal fluid called?

ependymal cells

70

How is hyaline cartilage different from elastic or fibrocartilage?

Fibers are not normally visible.

71

Mammary glands exhibit a glandular type called

compound alveolar

72

Sweat glands are this type of gland.

Generally speaking, exocrine; more specifically, eccrine; apocrine in the genital areas

73

An excitatory neurotransmitter secreted by motor neurons innervating skeletal muscle.

acetylcholine

74

an IPSP (inhibitory postsynaptic potential) is associated with this.

hyperpolarization

75

CNS refers to these.

brain and spinal cord

76

Nervous system integrative function

analyzes sensory information, stores information and makes decisions.

77

astrocytes

anchor neurons to blood vessels, control the chemical environment around neurons and support and brace neurons

78

neurolemma

A Schwann cell that enfolds one or more axons of the peripheral nervous system; in myelinated fibers, its plasma membrane forms the lamellae of myelin

79

Glands, such as the thyroid, that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than through ducts are classified as____________.

endocrine

80

These cells are amitotic.

neurons

81

Tissue that has lacunae, calcium salts and blood vessels.

osseous tissue.

82

first step in cell repair

inflammation

83

epithelial tissue has a basement membrane

yes

84

graded potentials

can be called postsynaptic potentials, they're shortlived, and they can form on receptor endings

85

The primary function of this tissue is nutrient storage.

adipose

86

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium can be found here.

lining of respiratory tract

87

What is not found inf the matrix of cartilage but not bone?

blood vessels

88

What type of tissue arises from all three embryonic germ layers

epithelial

89

Autonomic nervous system

motor fibers that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands

90

inability to absorb digested nutrients and secrete mucus might indicate a disorder in which tissue

simple columnar

91

a(n) _______________________occurs if the inhibitory effect is greater than the excitatory, causing hyperpolarization of the membrane

inhibitory postsynaptic potental

92

Does a nerve impulse occur if the excitatory and inhibitory effects are equal?

no.

93

a (n) _____________________ occurs if the excitatory effect is greater than the inhibitory effect but less than threshold

excitatory postsynaptic potential

94

In what way does the interior surface of a cell membrane of a resting (nonconducting) neuron differ from the external environment?

The interior is negatively charged and contains less sodium.

95

_______________ are rapid, automatic responses to stimuli.

Reflexes

96

Nervous tissue consists mainly of __________________.

...

97

Myelination of the nerve fibers in the CNS is the job of the ______________.

oligodendrocyte

98

Can strong stimuli cause the amplitude of action potentials generated to increase?

no.

99

During ________________, the inside of a neuron's membrane becomes less negative.

depolarization

100

The shock absorbing pads between the vertebrae are formed of ____________.

fibrocartliage

101

Depending on the functional state of the bladder, the ___________ ___________ may resemble stratified squamous or stratified cuboidal epithelium.

transitional epithelium

102

What types of tissue have the least amount of regeneration potential?

cardiac, connective,

103

Which type of fiber transmits nerve impulses faster? Large diameter fibers or small diameter fibers?

large diameter fibers

104

Area of the cortex that is responsible for sensations of a full bladder and the feeling that your lungs will burst when you hold your breath for too long.

visceral sensory cortex

105

After axonal injury, regeneration in the peripheral nerves is guided by the

Schwann cells

106

Cells that line the ventricles of the brain.

ependymal

107

Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in ______________.

the dorsal root of the spinal cord

108

Regeneration within the CNS is prevented due to

growth inhibiting proteins of oligodendrocytes

109

Spinal nerves exiting the cord from the level of L4 to S4 form the __________.

sacral plexus

110

Which brain waves are not normal for awake adults but are common for children?

Theta waves.

111

Pressure, pain, temperature receptors in the skin are

exteroreceptors

112

Preparing the body for the "fight-or-flight" response is the role of the

sympathetic nervous system

113

Starting at the spinal cord, the subdivisions of the brachial plexus are (in order):

roots, trunks, divisions, and cords

114

An individual accidentally transected the spinal cord between T1 and L1.

Paraplegia

115

Vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in this.

Medulla

116

The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of this.

the sympathetic stimulation.

117

The IPSP is associated with this.

hyperpolarization

118

Potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain are selectively detected by these.

nociceptors

119

The ____________ is the thermostat of the body becauses it regulates temperature.

hypothalamus

120

The abducens nerve supplies innervation to the ______________________

lateral rectus muscle of the eye.

121

A reflex that causes muscle relaxation and lengthening in response to muscle tension is called a _____________ __________.

Golgi tendon reflex

122

Mixed cranial nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers do not include what type of nerve type?

olfactory (sense only) and optic

123

Are skeletal muscle effectors directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?

No.

124

Hemorrhage causes a lowering of blood pressure due to a reduction in cardiac output.

True because of reduced resistance

125

The P wave of a regular electrocardiogram indicates____________.

atrial depolarization

126

______________ connects the two atria in the fetal heart.

Foramen ovale

127

Most abundant plasma protein.

albumin

128

average normal pH range of blood

7.35-7.45

129

Which tunic of an artery contains endothelium?

tunica intima/interna

130

If cardiac muscle is deprived of its normal blood supply, damage would primarily result from ___________.

decreased delivery of O2

131

Symptoms of polycythemia

increased blood volume, high blood pressure, high hematocrit, and increased blood viscosity

132

A characteristic that all leukocytes have in common.

They're nucleated.

133

allow the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells

capillaries

134

_________ _________ is the site of red cell production in throughout adult life.

Red bone marrow

135

Hypoxia of the EPO producing cells triggers ____________.

erythropoiesis

136

__________ _________ is systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure.

Pulse pressure

137

During ventricle systole, what vessels receive blood?

Aorta and pulmonary trunk

138

Distributing arteries are also known as the

muscular arteries

139

When neither anti-A sera nor anti-B sera clot on a blood plate with donor blood, the blood type is _____________.

O

140

___________ carry blood away from the heart.

Arteries

141

Normal heart sounds are caused by what activity in the heart.

The CLOSING of the valves (not the opening).

142

Blood within the pulmonary veins returns to the

left atrium

143

Universal donor

O

144

_______ _________ increases as blood viscosity increases.

Peripheral resistance

145

Factors that aid venous return in the body.

1) activity of skeletal muscles, 2) pressure changes in the thorax, and 3) venous valves

146

Which ventricular wall is thicker?

Left

147

The _________ ___________ is closed when the ventricle is in systole.

tricuspid valve

148

Parent cell for all formed elements of blood.

Pluripotent stem cell (hemocytoblast)

149

Has gap junctions that allow it to act as a functional synctium.

cardiac muscle

150

When semilunar valves are open the ventricles are in ___________.

systole

151

No visible cytoplasmic granules are visible in these leukocytes.

Monocytes

152

T wave

ventricular repolarization

153

Correct blood cell development phase:

proerythroblast, late erythroblast, normoblast, reticulocyte

154

function of platelets

stick to damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break

155

During the period of ventricular filling this happens...

blood flows passively through the atria and the open AV valves into the ventricles

156

Are fenestrated capillaries are not found here...

brain. The blood brain barrier includes other capillaries.

157

What organ of the body regulates erythrocyte production?

kidneys

158

4 steps of blood clot formation

formation of thromboplastin, prothrombin is converted into thrombin, fibrinogen is converted to fibrin, and clot retraction

159

A ________ ________ ________ increases end diastolic volume, stroke volume and force of contraction.

slow heart rate

160

Pacemaker of the heart.

SA node.

161

Leukopenia is an abnormally ___number of leukocytes.

low

162

How many molecules of oxygen can a hemoglobin molecule transport?

4

163

_____________ is the widening of the lumen due to smooth muscle relaxation.

Vasodilation

164

_____________ increase in number when a parasitic invasion occurs.

Eosinophils

165

Autonomic regulation of the heart rate is via two reflex centers in the _____________.

Medulla

166

As pressure in the aorta rises due to artherosclerosis, more ventricular pressure is required to open the __________ _________.

aortic valve

167

A person who can trace a picture of a bicycle with her finger but could not recognize it as a bicycle most likely has damage in this part of her brain.

visual association area

168

Broca's area is associated with this.

motor speech

169

The blood brain barrier is effective against

metabolic waste such as urea

170

Pupil dilation is the result of _________ stimulation.

parasymphathetic

171

Salivation, increased peristalsis, and elimination of urine are examples of __________ stimulation.

sympathetic

172

Nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS only are _________ _________.

afferent nerves

173

Lens accommodation for close vision is an example of __________ stimulation.

parasympathetic

174

Is the medulla directly involved with memory?

No.

175

Second order neurons of both the specific and nonspecific ascending pathways terminate in the __________.

thalamus

176

Cranial nerves that have neural connections with the tongue includes these...

facial, glossopharyngeal, and trigeminal

177

Category of memory associated with playing the piano.

procedural

178

Function of the skeletal system

Provides protection; Calcium storage; Provides structure and stability; Provides and facilitates movement; provides a series of levers for muscles; triglyceride storage; red blood cell formation

179

Function of the endocrine system

Slow communication system;

180

Function of the nervous system

Controlling and communication center within the body; by electrical impulses and chemicals

181

Function of the integumentary system

Protection

182

Function of the reproductive system

...

183

reflex arc

1) receptor, 2) sensory neuron, 3) integration center, 4) motor neuron, 5) effector

184

Only ________ ________ form plexuses.

ventral rami

185

How many spinal nerves?

31

186

How many cervical nerves?

8; C1-C8

187

How many thoracic nerves?

12; T1-T12

188

How many lumbar nerves?

5; L1-L5

189

How many sacral nerves?

5; S1-S5

190

How many coccyl nerves?

1

191

angiogenesis

Blood vessel creation; occurs when short term autoregulation cannot meet tissue nutrient requirements; common in higher altitude areas

192

Are rods color or black/white photoreceptors?

Black and white

193

Spinal reflexes are an example of _________ processing.

serial

194

Percentage of our blood that is plasma.

55%

195

Most common type of blood capillary.

continuous capillary

196

An example of immunity that IS NOT innate.

antibodies

197

What type of capillary is common in the kidneys and small intestine?

fenestrated (like a window)

198

Arterial problem that results in a loss of elasticity of artery walls.

arteriosclerosis

199

Abnormal and irregular dilations of superficial veins are called

varicose veins

200

Tonsils, Peyer's Patches and appendix are all associated with this.

MALT

201

The spleen is rich with which cell type?

macrophages (for blood filtering and cleaning)

202

The arterial side of a __________ _______________ pushes out fluid faster than the venous side can retrieve it.

capillary bed

203

________ are the only blood vessels with valves.

Veins (v and v)

204

The most permeable capillaries are________________.

sinusoid

205

Peyer's patches are clusters of lymphoid tissue found primarily in the ___________ ___________.

small intestine (ileum)

206

How many liters of fluid are lost to the tissue spaces every 24 hours and are returned to the bloodstream as lymph?

3 liters

207

Which pathway works faster in clotting...extrinsic factor or intrinsic factor?

extrinsic

208

What is required for the extrinsic pathway to work?

tissue factor

209

prevents backflow of blood into the left ventricle

aortic semilunar valve

210

prevents backflow of blood into the right ventricle

pulmonary semilunar valve

211

role of the atrioventricular node (AV node)

slow down impulses so that the atria can contract to fill the adjacent ventricles with blood