Ethics section 2
What is Act Utilitarianism?
morally right act, for any particular situation, would produce the most utility.
What is Jeremy Benthams Principle of Utility?
The act is only right if it maximizes the total of pleasure over pain for all parties
what is mills greatest happiness principle?
actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to reverse of happiness
How does Mill understand happiness?
He says anything that is either pleasurable or conductive should count as utility, also must be measurable or observable. Product of how one lives
How does Mill justify self-sacrifice?
He says the only truly moral self-sacrifice is self-sacrifice for the happiness of others
What does mill mean when he says that external and internal sanctions are needed for the utilitarian moral enterprise?
Identify the 4 steps an act utilitarian must take to determine what action is the morally right action in a situation?
Why do animals have moral interests in utilitarian ethics?
Because they seem to be able to make desirable and undesirable experiences and choices.
What is speciesism?
discrimination unfairly against animals and is compared by utilitarians to racism or sexism.
What is Rule Utilitarianism?
Gives rise to general moral rules and practices< such as keeping a secret, promotes overall utility
What does Priniciple of Rules mean in Rule Utilitarianism?
Morally right rule or practice, than if widely followed would promote overall utility than if the rule did not exist
What does Priniciple of Acts mean in Rule Utilitaarianism?
Morally right act is one that follows a morally right rule or practice. We have a moral duty o obey the rules identified by the principle or rules except when the rules come in direct conflict with one another
What does Rule Utilitariansm tell us?
tell what kinds of actions are morally right, regardless of the situation.
What is the difference between Rule and Act Utilitarianism?
act util, will sometimes approve of breaking a rule because it promotes overall utility. Rule util. says no matter the situation one must always hold the rule true and not break it.
What do Rule and Act Util. have in common?
agree that consequences are morally impt. and that morality ought to promote over all utility.
What kind of utilitarianism seeks to realize these commitments by assessing the effects of particular acts?
What are the 5 objections to Act Utilitarianism?
1. Calculation Problem
2. Moral Saints Problem
3. Moral Permissiveness
4.Justice/Human Rights Objection
How does Rule Utilitarianism improve upon act util by dealing with objections against act util?