Social Psychology Exam 3 (Final)

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Hindsight Bias

I-should-have-known-it-all-along phenomenon


How does hindsight bias affect people's reactions following an event such as suicide?

It’s so obvious when you look back on it

Magnifies feelings of guilt because you feel like you could have stopped it


Depressive Realism

Tendency of mildly depressed people to make accurate rather than self-serving judgments, attributions, and predictions.

This was referred to as the "sadder-but-wiser" effect. They don't have that more optimistic bias of themselves....makes more negative or even more realistic inferences than those who were not depressed.


What is Loneliness? How might modern life/culture contribute to loneliness?

Loneliness- Painful awareness that our social relationships are less numerous or meaningful than we desire. Feeling lonely and excluded.

National Survey- 1/3 drop over two decades in the number of people with whom we can “discuss important matters”

Internet Age- less face-to-face contact, less meaningful relationships


Relationship between Explanatory Style and Health

Explanatory Style: One's habitual way of explaining life events. A negative, pessimistic, depressive explanatory style attributes failure to stable, global, and internal causes. A negative explanatory style occurs when someone has a negative explanation, idea, or thought for a circumstance or situation.

Global- you think something negative will happen in every part of your life

Internal- you think something negative happened because of something in yourself

Stable- you think something negative will keep happening over and over again.

It is detrimental to health because negative thinking contributes to depressed mood, depressed moods contribute to more negative thinking. It is a negative, harmful cycle


How does eye-witness testimony affect the jury? Does the confidence of the eye-witness matter?

In cases with no eyewitness testimony the conviction rate is only 18 percent; with eyewitness testimony the rate skyrockets to 72 percent

Discrediting the eyewitness may reduce the number of guilty votes


Misinformation Effect

Incorporating “misinformation” into one’s memory of the event after witnessing an event and receiving misleading information about it

Ex. Suggestive Questioning


Psychological Effects of Climate Change

Displacement and trauma

Natural disasters

42 million displaced in 2010; up from 17 million in 2009

Climate and conflict

Competition for limited resources

Heat increase aggression


Why does materialism fail to achieve long-term happiness?

Collegians consider it very important that they become “very well off financially” instead of “developing a meaningful philosophy in life”

Materialism Fails to Satisfy

Our human capacity for adaptation

Adaptation-level phenomenon-Tendency to adapt to a given level of stimulation and thus to notice and react to changes from that level

Our wanting to compare

Social comparison- Evaluating one’s abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others


How do social psychologists explain the discrepancy between public and scientific knowledge/ understanding of climate change?

Personal Experience and the Availability Heuristic

Local experience distorts our global judgments

We attend to the immediate situation

Lacking Comprehension

Media influence (framing both sides)

Natural human optimism bias


Kitty Genovese

Research on the subject began in 1968 after the murder of Kitty Genovese

Who is Kitty Genovese?

a. A researcher who made groundbreaking progress with her work regarding productivity in the workplace

b. A woman who is credited for the start of online dating

c. A mentally disabled woman who spoke up against the stigma of mental health in today’s society

d. A woman whose death sparked research of the bystander effect

Correct Answer: D


The impact of the presence of friends (vs. strangers) on the bystander effect

According to research on the Bystander Effect, typically, as group size increases, assistance tends to decrease. However, one counteracting factor was the presence of

a. Social Loafing

b. Deindividuation

c. Friends instead of Strangers

d. Parents instead of Children

Correct Answer: C


Two Major Theories of Altruism

Empathic Concern (Selfless Acts)

Personal Distress (Selfish Acts)

Which theory of altruism is considered to be selfless and motivated by the well-being of others?

a. Empathic Concern

b. Personal Distress

c. Self-Presentation Theory

d. Social Exchange Theory

Correct Answer: A


Hawthorne Effect

The alteration of behavior by the subjects of a study due to their awareness of being observed


Mobbing (in the workplace)

Qureshi et al. (2013) found that the increase of mobbing in the workplace leads to a decrease in employee productivity, which is mediated by stress.


Give examples of how the Foot-In-The-Door Phenomenon manifests in performance management systems.

Performance Management Systems resemble the Foot-In-The-Door Phenomenon through the fact that each successive goal set is an approximation for a higher standard, which the employee is more likely to commit to a harder goal after already committing and attaining an easier one in the past.


What are the effects/benefits of employee training in the workplace?

Training can lead to

a. Increased self-efficacy

b. A self-fulfilling prophecy

c. Increased job satisfaction

d. All of the above

Correct Answer: D

Sarah is feeling unhappy about her job. She feels like she is underappreciate by her boss, and feels bad about herself because she puts in a lot of effort but rarely receives the results she wants. Because of this, she leaves her job. This can be attributed to

a. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

b. Self-Esteem Motivation

c. Just-World Phenomenon

d. Social Loafing

Correct Answer: B


Self-Efficacy and Exercise Adherence (Distinguish between vigorous vs light to moderate activity)

Self-efficacy is typically a determinant of adoption as well as maintenance of exercise behavior when it comes to _____________.

a. Vigorous physical activity

b. Light physical activity

c. Moderate physical activity

d. All of the above

Correct Answer: A

In a study by Tiggemann & Williamson (2000) they found that women have lower overall body satisfaction when exercising compared to men. However, the entire population except for _______________ experienced increases in both body satisfaction and self-esteem as amount of exercise increases.

a. Older men from age 60+

b. Young men from age 16-21

c. Older women from age 60+

d. Young women from age 16-21

Correct Answer: D


When might an athlete's motivation diminish due to the overjustification effect

Overjustification Effect: Results of bribing people to do what they already like doing

May see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing

Associated with individuals who are involved with a physical activity intervention or regularly engage in exercise.

Bribing may cause one to see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing.

Doing it because someone else wants me to

Takes away from a person’s self-determination


What are intrinisic and extrinisic motivators for athletes



What did the study on NBA athlete's tactile communication reveal regarding motivation?

Observed amount of touch during 1 early season game, each NBA team

Level of cooperation was found to increase when touches increase & lead to a more significant relationship to performance over the season

Touch indicates cooperation between teammates, which in turn, predicts performance over the entire season


Touch promotes trust & cooperation, fundamental for interpersonal communication

Touch predicts performance through fostering cooperation between teammates


When considering the effects of media violence on children, explain the brain pathways thought to be responsible to aggress impulsively. Specifically, what route to persuasion is most closely associated with this process?

Why might exposure to violent media on television or in video games lead to impulsive aggression in children?

a. Exposure to violent media may cause the brain to take a central route when processing the violent media, leading to a planned response to aggress.

b. Impulsively aggressing is the rational and typical reaction seen in children who view violent media.

c. Exposure to violent media may cause the brain to take a peripheral route when processing the violent media, leading to automatic acceptance of aggression or an emotional response.

d. Violent media can never lead to impulsive aggression in children.

Correct Answer: C


What are some reasons people prefer the internet and social media (rather than face-to-face contact) for communication?

Responses of participants from a study:

Face-to-face communication takes place in real time

With face-to-face communication you can’t control what you’re going to say

On the internet and social media we can present the self as we want it to be


What were some possible reasons provided as to why graphic infomercials could decrease deindividuation?

Graphic Infomercials Hinder Deindividuation

Smaller group size

Less arousing and distracting activities

Solely focused on the infomercial

Increased Self-Awareness

Tend to increase responsiveness to the immediate situation (infomercial) Take action

Which of the following would MOST likely lead one in the trajectory of denial?

a. Use of the influential channel of communication

b. Personalizing the message

c. Utilizing the consensus element of persuasion

d. Reconstructing our past behavior to fit our current beliefs

Correct Answer: D

Which of the following will NOT hinder deindividuation?

a. Fewer arousing and distracting activities

b. Larger group size

c. Watching TV by oneself

d. Increased self-awareness

Correct Answer: B


What are the reasons why parents of teenagers may report less life-satisfaction compared to parents of younger children?



In research by Vanassche, Swicegood, and Matthijs (2012), (presentation: The Effects of Marriage and Parenthood on Parental Life), what is a collective belief about relationships that is consistent across cultures?

In research by Vanassche, Swicegold, and Matthijs (2012), what is a collective belief about relationships that is consistent across cultures?

a. Married people are happier than non-married cohabiting partners

b. Married man are less happy than married women

c. Long term relationships are important for individual well-being

d. Mothers are less happy when they have younger children

Correct Answer: C


Social Penetration Theory in the context of long-distance intimate relationships.

States that as we get to know someone, we engage in a reciprocal process of self-disclosure that changes in breadth and depth and affects how a relationship develops.

As a relationship develops, communication moves from relatively shallow, non-intimate levels to deeper, more personal ones through self-disclosure

Long-distance romantic relationships have ________ investments and ________ perceived alternatives.

a. high investments, low perceived alternatives

b. low investments, low perceived alternatives

c.high investments, high perceived alternatives

d. low investments, low perceived alternatives

Correct Answer: A

With high insecure attachment, the person reveals ________ emotional material to the partner and is ________ satisfied with the relationship.

a. more, less

b. less, more

c. more, more

d. less, less

Correct Answer: D

In the context of online dating, the Social Penetration Theory suggests that____

a. A relationship may develop as long as one individual communicates intimate things

b. When one individual reveals intimate information and the other reciprocates, a sense of intimacy is created and a relationship is more likely to develop

c. When one individual reveals intimate information and the other reciprocated, a sense of intimacy is created and a relationship will not likely develop

d. Individuals who talk more often are more likely to develop a relationship

Correct Answer: B

The ideal self is…

a. A form of effective communication

b. How a person would want to be

c. Something that conveys attractiveness

d. All of the above

Correct Answer: D


Modality Switching Perspective in the context of online dating

Suggests that online partners who meet offline might experience different outcomes depending on the amount of time and online communication preceding the initial face-to-face meeting

Research suggests that short-term online partnerships leads to reduced uncertainty and more positive outcomes.

Suggest meeting face-to-face before partners have had time to form idealized impressions that may be violated upon meeting.

Tom and Jane met on an online dating website and have been chatting back and forth for 2 months. They plan to meet face-to-face soon, and Tom fears he may have spent all of this time forming idealized impressions of Jane and will experience discrepancies when they finally meet. This refers to:

a. Deceitful self-representation

b. The modality switching perspective

c. Self-serving bias

d. Computer-mediated anxiety

Correct Answer: B

Carrie sees herself as talented singer and mentions this on her online dating profile. When Anthony clicks on her profile and watches a video of her singing, he thinks it is mediocre. Carrie is experiencing:

a. Foggy mirror

b. Fundamental attribution error

c. Overjustification effect

d. Cognitive dissonance

Correct Answer: A


What are some effect of social anxiety on romantic relationships

_________ is the group diagnosed with social anxiety more often.

a. Males

b. Females

c. Adolescents

d. Adults

Correct Answer: B

Which is NOT a possible effect of social anxiety?

a. Lower income

b. Increased psychological tension

c. More romantic partners

d. Lower quality romantic relationships

Correct Answer: C


Imposter Phenomenon

Clance and Imes (1977) first operationalized the Imposter Phenomenon

“Internal experience of intellectual phoniness which appears to be particularly prevalent and intense among a select sample of high achieving women.”

Inability to internalize success; success is due to a mistake, luck, or deception

Fear of being discovered as a “fraud”


What has the research indicated on the relationship between money and happiness? (Hint: review video clip from "money and happiness" presentation)

According to the money and happiness presentation, what is the most problematic concept associated with being happy and successful?

a. Greed

b. Comparison

c. Ego

d. Both A&B

Correct Answer: D

Which Factor helps societies to sustain freedom and to finance social welfare programs?

a. Economic Growth

b. Independence

c. Proper Health Care

d. Social Class

Correct Answer: A



An unhappy condition of overload, debt, anxiety, and waste resulting from the dogged pursuit of more.

The practice of measuring worth through consumerism

how much stuff one has, having all the latest stuff, having the most impressive stuff

Constant need for more, pressure to buy more


Cultivation Theory

Heavy viewers of media will begin accepting the messages of media as reality

Amount of TV viewing vs. materialistic values

GOOGLE: Cultivation theory examines the long-term effects of television. "The primary proposition of cultivation theory states that the more time people spend 'living' in the television world, the more likely they are to believe social reality portrayed on television."


What does the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) score represent?

Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) particularly physical and sexual abuse as well as other traumas

Modeling of negative behavior

Learned aggression and displacement

Self-fulfilling prophecy

The number of negative experiences a child has such as physical or sexual abuse which makes them more likely to become delinquent.

One of the screening methods for identifying potential juvenile delinquents was the use of the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) score which was useful because it identified individuals who were likely to

a. Learn to overcome childhood trauma

b. Model negative behavior they experienced as a child later on in life

c. Become more stigma conscious

d. Make stereotypes

Correct Answer: B


What is the most significant factor when considering the likelihood that an adolescent will become a sexual offender?

What is the most significant factor of adolescents becoming sexual offenders?

a. Dyslexia

b. Substance abuse

c. Prior abuse

d. Frontal lobe damage

Correct Answer: C

Adolescent sex offenders are more likely to believe:

a. Women can commit rape

b. Women are asking to be raped

c. Divorce is an uncommon occurrence

d. Communication is necessary in relationships

Correct Answer: B


According to the research, what are the biggest social factors contributing to misdemeanor behaviors in juvenile delinquents

1. Parental Care

Parental warmth, parent-child attachment, family structure

2. Peer deviance or influence

Who do you associate with, how many in a group

3. Neighborhood/Community influence

Where do you live, surrounding events

Research shows that while many factors contribute to the behaviors in juvenile delinquents, parental care, _______ and community influence are the biggest social factors.

a. Sport activities

b. Peer deviance

c. Media

d. Biological factors

Correct Answer: B

Recent statistics of juvenile arrest portray that the trends of arrests rates are

a. Decreasing

b. Increasing

c. Relatively the same

d. Does not exist

Correct Answer: A


Describe the social structures of prisons. How does the realistic group conflict theory manifest in prisons?

Non-verbal communication used by all inmates

Inmates are separated into distinct groups upon arrival through this type of communication.

Inmates remain in these subgroups for the duration of their sentence

Groups based on stereotypes, racism, prejudice

In-Group Bias is seen as well as a shift in social identity

Realistic Group Conflict Theory at play when leaders of different groups attempt to control the limited resources available to the inmates.


Spontaneous Categorization

Grouping people into “us” and “them”


What are the two main reasons why society tends to stigmatize mental illness

Controllability of illness

Familiarity with illness


Give an example of Stereotype Threat in the context of someone who speaks a foreign language

Which of these is NOT a reason why learning a new language may decrease hostile attitudes towards foreign language speakers?

a. Research has proven that learning a new language indeed does decrease hostile attitudes.

b. Mere exposure effects how much someone likes a person from another group. Learning a new language increases chances of exposure to the foreign speakers.

c. Learning a new language increases chances of direct contact with foreign speakers, which in turn decreases hostile attitudes towards foreign speakers.

d. Learning a new language immerses is likely to immerse someone in the culture that the language is typically spoken in, giving the learner a new appreciation for a culture that may have otherwise seemed unfavorable.

Correct Answer: A


Contact Theory

Similar to mere exposure, but contact not just exposure

Being in close proximity to another person or group of people will reduce racist and hostile feelings towards that group

GOOGLE The premise of Allport's theory states that under appropriate conditions interpersonal contact is one of the most effective ways to reduce prejudice between majority and minority group members.

Allport claimed that direct contact with an out-group member would decrease prejudice and racism in this proposed theory:

a. Mere Exposure

b. Contact Theory

c. In-Group/Out-Group Theory

d. Attribution Theory

Correct Answer: B


According to one study presented in class, what was unique about obese individuals when it comes to in-group bias?

Obese/overweight people are perhaps one of the only category of people who do not form an in-group bias


Explain how jurors may form judgments about lawyers based on the physical attractiveness stereotype?

If a lawyer is perceived as attractive, the jury may attribute other positive characteristics to the lawyer, like honesty. This is an example of the __________.

Correct Answer: Physical Attractiveness Stereotype


What are issues involved with stigma (of illnesses) in relation to health and access to care?



How does social consciousness apply to children with physical disabilities?

They feel as if they stick out because their disability may be visible.


What do children diagnosed with a chronic illness use as a protective mechanism in order to keep a healthy self-concept?

Positive illusory bias

Essentially, children with chronic illnesses may systemically rate their self concept, and self perceptions of performance/competence higher than they would be rated on objective measures as a self protective measure



The combination of individual and institutional prejudice and discrimination against persons with disabilities


Tomsich and Guy (2012) conducted a study to investigate the association between the gender of a judge and perception of authority. What happened when male and female judges expressed the same amount of patience and warmth? (i.e. how were the male and female judges perceived differently?)

Women judges who express nurturance are viewed as being more tough than male judges who express it

No difference is assigned to women when they display toughness


Embodied Cognition

An investigation into the ways people use their bodies to think about, influence, and relate in a social world


Mirror Neurons

Neurons that fire when you do an action, and also when you simply watch someone else doing the same action .


Overjustification Effect

An expected external incentive such as money or prizes decreases a persons intrinsic motivation to perform a task


Explicit and Implicit Attitudes

Explicit Attitude - A ttitudes that are at the conscious level, are deliberately formed and are easy to self-report.

Implicit Attitude - A ttitudes that are at the unconscious level, are involuntarily formed and are typically unknown to us.


Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation



Social Learning Theory/Bandura's BoBo Doll Experiment

—We learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished.

In the Bobo Doll experiment, Bandura demonstrated that children learn and imitate behaviors they have observed in other people. The children in Bandura’s studies observed an adult acting violently toward a Bobo doll. When the children were later allowed to play in a room with the Bobo doll, they began to imitate the aggressive actions they had previously observed.

The Bandura Experiment with the Bobo Doll is an example of

a. Family Influences

b. Social Learning Theory

c. Rape Myth

d. Deindividuation

Correct Answer: B


Availability Heuristic

Judges our likelihood of things in terms of their availability in our memory

Ex. Everytime I am late, there is alot of traffic


Illusory Correlation

is the phenomenon of perceiving a relationship between variables, even when no such relationship exists.



Lose their sense of self within a group , occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad



Diminished emotional responsiveness to a negative or aversive stimulus after repeated exposure to it



How competent we feel on a task. Belief in one self’s ability to accomplish a task Leads us to set challenging goals and to persist

When parents with more than one child has higher self-efficacy

a. They may think more positively about working and taking care of their children at the same time.

b. They may not believe they have the ability to work full time and take care of their children

c. This is the time when they believe that others are paying attention to their appearance

d. Single parents were found to be less religious than married parents

Correct Answer: A


Bystander Effect

Finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders


Social Dominance Orientation

Tend to view people in terms of hierarchies- tend to notice status differences . Being in a dominant high-status position tends to promote this orientation and justification


In-Group Bias

When our group succeeds, we feel better by identifying strongly with it


Internal/ External Locus of Control

Extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controllable by their own efforts and actions or as externally controlled by chance or outside forces


Internal - I did well on the exam because I studied really hard

External - The professor made the exam easy, everyone did well


Central and Peripheral Routes of Persuasion

Central- Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts

When people are motivated and can think about the issue

More durable and more likely to influence behavior

Audience is thoughtful and engaged, or those whose initial attitudes were formed through reason

Peripheral- Occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness

Focuses on cues that trigger automatic acceptance without much thinking-familiar and easily understood statements are more persuasive

Use peripheral cues and rules-of-thumb heuristics (e.g., “trust the experts)

Superficial and temporary attitude change

Slowly builds implicit attitudes through repeated associations

Audience is uninterested or those whose initial attitudes were formed through emotion


Realistic Group Conflict Theory

Prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources . Peace between groups is easier during prosperous times


Spotlight Effect

Belief that others are paying more attention to one’s appearance and behavior than they really are.

Ex. Bad Hair Day

In parental satisfaction and the presence of children in a household, the spotlight effect is when

a. Parents are working full-time therefore spent less time at home with their children

b. Teenagers believe that others are paying attention to their appearance.

c. They may think more positively about working and taking care of their children at the same time .

d. They may not believe they have the ability to work full time and take care of their children

Correct Answer: B


Self-Presentation Theory

Wanting to present a desired image both to an external audience (other people) and to an internal audience (ourselves)


The Fundamental Attribution Error

Tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon others’ behavior .

Example : someone cuts in front of you in line, your immediate reaction is “This person is a complete jerk!"(Dispositional) But in reality, maybe he never cuts into lines and is doing it this time only because he is about to miss his plane (situational)


Stereotype Threat

Predicament in which people are or feel themselves to be at risk of confirming negative stereotypes about their social group.


Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Is when a person unknowingly causes a prediction to come true, due to the simple fact that he or she expects it to come true. A belief that comes true because we are acting as if it is already true.

Example : If I believe I don’t make a good first impression, or I worry that nobody will talk to me, I will probably enter the party acting awkward, anxious, and standoffish. In turn, people are likely to interact with me with less enthusiasm, or they may ignore or shun me. Which only reinforces my belief that I’m not good with people I don’t know.


Physical Attractiveness Stereotype

Presumption that physically attractive people possess other socially desirable traits as well . Attractive people are valued and favored, and so many develop more social self-confidence


Foot-In-The-Door Phenomenon

Tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request