Eye Notes

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 5 years ago by mmiyakooo
166 views
Password: Dr.Kim
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

What is the stimulus for the eye?

Light

2

What is visible light?

portion of electromagnetic spectrum humans can see

3

light:

electromagnetic radiation

4

What protects the eye?

bony orbits of skull (cushioning fat deposits)

extrinsic muscle

Blinking (eyelids)

eyebrows

eyelashes

Tears

5

What are in tears to prevent infection ?

lysozyme enzyme

6

Sclera

posterior four-fifths of eyeball, white connective tissue

7

Cornea

anterior one-fifth of eye

8

Choroid

prevent the reflection of light inside eye

9

what does the sclera do?

maintain shape of eye and provide site for muscle attachment

10

What does the cornea do?

it is the transparent and refracts light that enters the eye and bends light

11

What does the choroid have?

vascular network

12

What is in the anterior chamber?

aqueous humor

13

aqueous humor

nourish lens and cornea, it is replaced everyday

14

Pupil

opening formed by iris muscle to control opening and closing

15

iris

smooth muscle regulated by ANS

16

What does the iris control?

amount of light entering the pupil

17

How does the iris gets its color?

depending on the amount of melanin pigment

18

what color is the eye when it has less melanin?

Blue

19

what color is the eye when it is rich in melanin?

Black or Brown

20

Iris: what is the root word for it?

Rainbow, meaning color of eye

21

Lens

lens of camera, transparent, adjustable

22

what is continuous with iris?

ciliary body

23

accommodation

determining far away or close, change shape to focus, helps depth perception

24

What does the ciliary body control?

shape of lens

25

contraction of the ciliary muscles cause what to the lens?

it becomes more spherical; accommodation

26

what does the ciliary process produce?

aqueous humor

27

what is contained in the vitreous chamber?

vitreous humor

28

Optic Disc

location through which nerves exit and blood vessels enter the eye

29

The blind spot is the ____ _____.

optic disc

30

Macula

the area of the greatest sensitivity to light

31

where is the fovea centralis

inside the macula

32

The Retina is lined with what?

visual receptors

33

the photoreceptors are close to what the __________.

Choroid

34

what is the pathway of light?

Light > cornea > anterior chamber > pupil > lens > vitreous chamber > retina

35

What are the layers of retina?

axons of optic nerve, ganglion cells, amacrine cell, bipolar cells, horizontal cells, photoreceptors

36

Rods

noncolor vision and night vision

37

cones

color vision and visual acuity

38

how many cone types are there?

3

39

what are the three types of cones?

Blue, Red, Green

40

how can we see pink?

mixing the ratio of different types of cones

41

Most visual images are focused on the fovea centralis and macula.

True

42

The fovea centralis has a very high concentration of rods.

False

43

Macula are more cones than rods.

True

44

Where are most of the rods?

periphery of retina

45

Scotopic Vision uses what photoreceptor?

rods

46

Photopic vision uses what kind of photoreceptors?

cones

47

Peak wavelength sensitivity: Scotopic

502mm

48

Peak wavelength sensitivity: Photopic

Blue (cones) 420mm

Green (cones) 530mm

Red (cones) 560mm

49

Distinguish color: scotopic

none

50

Distinguish color: photopic

color sensitive

51

sensitivity to dim light: Scotopic

excellent

52

sensitivity to dim light: photopic

poor

53

acuity: Scotopic

poor

54

Acuity: Photopic

excellent

55

Location in Retina: Scotopic

primarily in the periphery

56

Location in Retina: Photopic

primary in the fovea

57

Visual Pathway: Light from each half of a visual field projects to the same side of the retina.

False

58

Visual Pathway: Left optic tract carried a complete representation of the right half of the visual field, and the opposite is true for the right optic tract.

True

59

Visual Pathway: Most axons of optic tracts synapse with neurons in the lateral geniculate nuclei LGN.

True

60

Where is the LGN ?

in the thalamus

61

Axons of the LGN project to the primary visual cortex in the midbrain.

False

62

Some nerve fibers in the optic tracts send branches to superior colliculi in the midbrain.

True

63

Glaucoma

excessive pressure buildup in aqueous humor

64

Myopia Symptoms:

Difficulty seeing distant objects

65

Hyperopia Symptoms:

difficulty seeing close objects, reading

66

Cataracts Symptoms:

mild blockage of light to complete blindness, distortion of color vision

67

Astigmatism Symptoms:

Difficulty seeing distant objects

68

Scotoma symptoms:

regions of blindness in visual field

69

Prosopagnosia Symptoms:

inability to recognize familiar faces