Childrearing weeks 1-5

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created 5 years ago by rappt2
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wong ch.1, 2, 4
updated 5 years ago by rappt2
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1

leading causes of disease, disability, and death in children may be reduced by addressing which categories of behavior?

  1. nutrition
  2. immunizations
  3. safety & injury prevention
  4. dental care
  5. development - physical/emotional
  6. socialization
  7. discipline
  8. schooling
2

leading cause of childhood mortality?

injury and accidents

3

what is the "new morbidity"?

pediatric social illness - refers to the behavior, social, and educational problems that children face

4

household

relationships between dependent children and one or more protective adults; sense of belonging

5

family

defined by its members that are related by biology, legal ties and/or choice, provides support and socialization; provides context for mutual commitments and attachment

6

family centered care

recognizes the family as the constant in the child's life; patient IS the family

7

4 core concepts in the science of early childhood development: concept #1

experiences of early childhood drive the development of the brain; genes and environment shape early wiring

8

4 core concepts in the science of early childhood development: concept #2

brain is built from the bottom up and from the inside out

9

4 core concepts in the science of early childhood development: concept #3

developing brains have defined periods during which they are very sensitive to certain types of stimuli

10

4 core concepts in the science of early childhood development: concept #4

development of lower circuits are needed for more complex capabilities and higher functions become more difficult if lower circuits are not wired well

11

which functions are the last to develop in the brain?

  • executive functions
    • self regulation
    • problem solving
    • language/communication
    • social bonding
12

infant mental health refers to

the developing capacity of the child from birth to age 3:

  • relationship: reciprocity
  • attunement
  • attachment
  • share delight
  • reflection
13

large declines in infant mortality due to:

  • improved living conditions
  • vaccinations
  • prenatal care
  • antibiotics
  • med/surg advances in neonatal care
14

increase in pediatric mental health disorders, which includes:

  • ADD
  • anxiety
  • depression
  • substance use
  • "relational poverty"
15

stress

  • psychological and physiological response to actual or potential threats to wellbeing in the context of a lack of certainty about one's capacity to cope with or effectively manage threat
    • positive/tolerable/toxic
16

stress response

mobilize our energy and focus attention to deal with immediate needs (respiration, energy availability, HR, memory, attention, pain perception)

  • shift our resources away from or put off future needs (digestion, sleep, tissue repair, immune system, physical growth, exploration/play)
17

chonric stress affect on the body:

  • growth
  • immune function
  • heart disease
  • brain
18

toxic stress

strong, frequent, and/or prolonged adversity without adequate adult support

  • physical/emotional abuse
  • chronic neglect
  • caregiver substance abuse or mental illness
  • exposure to violence
  • family economic hardship
19

consequences of toxic stress

  • infants and toddlers more vulnerable
  • disrupts developing brain
    • learning, behavior, health
20

avoid toxic stress by

  • positive parenting and nurturing may buffer toxic stress
  • create positive and protective childhood environment
  • healing through relationships and support
21

nursing goals of promoting first relationships

  1. parent support child's social and emotional development
  2. caregiver has increased feelings of trust, competence, and confidence
  3. happy, loving, and mutually enjoyable relationships
22

general assumptions of development

  • continual process w/many influences
  • occurs in stages & is dynamic and interactional
  • all areas are interrelated
23

general principles of development

  • occurs in predictable patterns at predictable times (orderly & sequential)
  • cephalo-caudal and proximo-distal direction
  • abilities become increasingly differentiated and integrated
24

predictable pattern and times (pace is variable)

  • first year
  • 6-7 mos: bear weight on legs
  • 9 mos: crawling; pull to stand
  • 11 mos: crusing
  • 12: first steps
25
  • cephalo-caudal and proximo-distal direction
    • head control
  • 1 mos: complete head lag
  • 4 mos: almost no head lag; lefts head and chest up 90 degrees
26

increasingly differentiated

  • 8-9 months
  • 11 months
  • crude pincer grasp
  • fine pincer grasp
27

surveillance

"watching over time"

  • flexible, continuous process of skilled observation
  • process of recognizing risks of dev delays
28

developmental screening

  • procedure designed to ID children who should receive more intensive assessment or diagnosis
    • AAP screening: use of standardized tools to id and refine risk (9-, 18-, 30 month visits)
29

developmental delay

failure to meet an age appropriate milestone