Philosophy 105 Final Exam

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1

Natural Law

A rule of conduct, a general command, permission or prohibition, or a general statement assigning rights or obligations.

2

Philosophy

Love of wisdom- A comprehensive view of reality and man's place in it.

3

Truth

attribute of beliefs, opinions, theories, doctrines, statements, etc...

4

Atman

Soul

5

Ontology

The general theory of the world, the soul, and God.

6

Nomos

Law of the Land

7

Attitude/Belief

Two people who may agree on all the relevant facts, and yet have a genuine disagreement when evaluating them.

8

cosmos

World

9

Ludwig Wittgenstein

(1889-1951) in the philosophy of mathematics he was opposed to the idea that we discover objective truths. Any system that we seem to find is ultimately on our own construction; the appearance of independent objectivity is only an effect of the procedures which come naturally to us and are then reinforced by rigorous training.

10

The Republic

Is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning the definition of justice the order and character of the just city-state and the just man.

11

Theory of Knowledge

A philosophical inquiry into, or theory of, the nature, possibility, scope, and limits of human knowledge.

12

Knowledge

Is not the same as belief or opinion- To say that a person knows that p implies that p and the second implies that not -p. People can know different things, but they cannot know incompatible things.

13

Science

Reserved the knowledge of what is necessarily the case, even in writings as those of Locke and Hume. Such knowledge is acquired by rational intuition or by demonstration.

14

Aristotle

Greek philosopher who is often considered one of the two most influential philosophers in Western thought. His most valued knowledge gained from the senses and would correspondingly be classed among modern empiricists. He set the stage for what would eventually develop into the scientific method centuries later.

15

Epistemology

Theory of knowledge, the branch of philosophy that inquires into the nature and the possibility of knowledge.

16

Plato

The first great systematic philosopher of Western Tradition

17

Mathematical Logic

Is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.

18

Polis

a city-state, a community

19

Philosophy tests the most fundamental

Beliefs, convictions, and values

20

Metaphysics

Deals with the most fundamental concepts: reality, existence, substance, causality, etc...

21

Skepticism

the view that can be known with certainty; that at best, there can only be some private probable opinion.

22

Democritus

Ancient Greek Philosopher of Abdera, who developed atomism as a major philosophical theory.

23

Socrates

"Called philosophy down from heaven" turning it away from theories about nature towards inquiry into ethics.

24

Wisdom

The quality or state of being wise; knowledge of what is true or right coupled with just judgment as to action; sagacity. discernment, or insight. A cardinal virtue.

25

Brahma is

breath

26

Lyssa is

the blind rage of the wolf

27

What two Greek words make up the word philosophy and what do they mean?

phiko-love

Sophia-wisdom

28

To know thyself is, minimally,

to know

29

Pythagoras

Was an early Greek philosopher. Best known for proving the Pythagorean Theorem true.

30

True Forms

True to what it is, experiences no change.

31

Protagoras of Abdera

The greatest of the Sophists, a teacher of rhetoric and politics. Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, he proposed that "Man is the measure of all things"

32

Republic

Dialogue written by Plato, focuses on "Is it always better to be just than unjust?"

33

Philo of Alexandria

Jewish philosopher who attempted to reconcile traditional Jewish belief w/ contemporary Greek philosophy

34

Plato

The first great systematic philosopher of the Western tradition

35

Eudaimonia

Well-being; happiness

36

Truth

Attributes of beliefs, opinions, theories, doctrines, statements, etc...

37

Socratic Method

consists in asking questions that will prompt reflection, which in turn will produce knowledge--or awareness of one's own ignorance.

38

Ontology

Theory of existence; inquiry into being

39

Omnipotence

All powerful

40

Omniscience

All knowing

41

Monotheism

the doctrine that there is exactly one personal God and that he ought to be worshipped

42

Empeiria

Observation

43

Empirical

Pertaining to experience, especially sense-experience of knowledge based on observation

44

Stoicism

One of the most popular philosophical systems in the Hellenistic and Roman Period. It was founded by Zeno of Citium. Takes the lawfulness of the cosmos as the model on which human life is to proceed. The rule of law is the defining mark of our humanity, according to philosophy.

45

Hellenistic Philosophy

The doctrines and schools which flourished in the last three centuries BC but which continued even under Roman emperors.

46

Epistemology

Theory of knowledge; the branch of philosophy that inquires into the nature and possibility of knowledge

47

Hippocrates of Kos

philosopher who championed the Hippocratic view of medicine.

48

What two Greek words make up the word philosophy and what do they mean?

philo-love

Sophia-wisdom

49

Theaetetus

Dialogue written by Plato concerning the nature of knowledge

50

Nomological statement

statement of scientific law

51

Epicurus

founder of the Epicurean school; born in Samos

52

Elenchus

Refutation of an opinion, especially by eliciting self-contradiction or self-refutation within the interlocutor's thought.

53

God

a unique entity, in some or all respects perfect and absolute, whose existence can supply answers to fundamental questions in metaphysics and ethics.

54

virtue

A quality or a power.

55

Oikeion

natural kinship

56

Name three virtues

friendliness, gentleness, kindness.

57

Nomos

law

58

Apathia

without, passion, suffering

59

Arete

Virtue