Finals A&P

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1

A boy who has not passed through puberty sustains an injury to his anterior pituitary such that FSH is no longer released, but LH is normal. After he grows to maturity, one would expect that he would ________.
A) be sterile
B) not develop secondary sex characteristics
C) be impotent (unable to have an erection)
D) have impaired function of interstitial cells

A

2

A disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the pituitary gland with symptoms of polyuria is ________.
A) diabetes mellitus
B) diabetes insipidus
C) diabetic acidosis
D) coma

Answer: B

3

A low secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the normal male adult would cause ________.
A) decreased testosterone secretion
B) excessive beard growth
C) increased spermatogenesis
D) shrinkage of the anterior pituitary gland

A

4

Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________.
A) is not reabsorbed by the tubule cells
B) increases the rate of glomerular filtration
C) increases secretion of ADH
D) inhibits the release of ADH

D

5

An important characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density, which is ________.
A) 1.041-1.073
B) 1.001-1.035
C) 1.030-1.040
D) 1.000-1.015

B

6

An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n) ________.
A) decrease in the production of ADH
B) increase in the production of ADH
C) increase in the production of aldosterone
D) decrease in the concentration of the blood plasma

Answer: B
Page Ref: 981

7

During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle ________.
A) LH reaches its highest levels
B) progesterone levels are at their highest
C) estrogen reaches its highest levels
D) the Graafian follicle forms

B

8

Erection of the penis results from ________.
A) a sympathetic reflex
B) parasympathetic activation of the bulbourethral glands
C) dilation of the veins in the penis
D) a spinal reflex mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system

D

9

Which is not a part of the proliferative phase of the female menstrual cycle?
A) cervical mucus becomes thin and crystalline
B) ovulation
C) corpus luteum
D) development of endometrial cells

C

10

Fertilization generally occurs in the ________.
A) ovary
B) uterus
C) vagina
D) fallopian tubes

D

11

How do the testes respond to exposure to excessive body warmth?

A) They move close to the pelvic cavity.
B) They move away from the pelvic cavity.
C) Excessive warmth has no effect on the testicles because of their location in the scrotum.
D) Excessive warmth is actually beneficial in that it speeds up the maturation of sperm.

B

12

Human egg and sperm are similar in that ________.

A) about the same number of each is produced per month
B) they have the same degree of motility
C) they have the same number of chromosomes
D) they are about the same size

C

13

If gametes were diploid like somatic cells, how many chromosomes would the zygote contain?

A) twice the diploid number, and with every succeeding generation, the chromosome number would continue to double and normal development could not occur
B) triple the diploid number, and with every succeeding generation, the chromosome number would continue to triple and normal development would not occur
C) half the diploid number with no change in development
D) There is no relationship between gametes and somatic cells.

A

14

If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?
A) The glucose molecule is too large to be filtered out of the blood.
B) Most of the glucose is filtered out of the blood and is not reabsorbed in the convoluted tubules.
C) Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed.
D) The clearance value of glucose is relatively high in a healthy adult.

C

15

In humans, separation of the cells at the two-cell state following fertilization may lead to the production of twins, which in this case would be ________.

A) of different sexes
B) identical
C) fraternal
D) dizygotic

B

16

Prostate cancer is _______.

A) often the result of a distortion of the urethra
B) sometimes a slow-growing cancer that may never represent a threat to the patient
C) most common in Asians
D) the number-one cause of death in men

B

17

Secretion of progesterone stimulates ________.

A) development of the female secondary sex characteristics
B) preparation of the mammary glands for lactation
C) secretory activity of the uterine myometrium
D) contraction of uterine muscles

B

18

Select the correct statement about the uterine cycle.

A) If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo.
B) During the secretory phase, estrogen levels are at their highest.
C) During the proliferative phase, levels of progesterone rise as the follicle begins to produce more hormone.
D) The menstrual phase of the cycle is from day 1 to day 8.

A

19

Spermiogenesis involves the ________.

A) sequence of events in the rete testis
B) movement of sperm in the female genital tract
C) formation of a functional sperm by the stripping away of superfluous cytoplasm
D) formation of four haploid cells from a spermatogonium

C

20

The ability of a male to ejaculate is due to the action of ________.

A) the bulbospongiosus muscles
B) the dartos muscle
C) luteinizing hormone
D) parasympathetic nerves

A

21

The dartos and cremaster muscles are important to the integrity of the male reproductive system. Which of the following is true about the role they play?

A) They contract to allow ejaculation.
B) They regulate the temperature of the testes.
C) They are responsible for penile erection.
D) They contract to push sperm along the ductus deferens.

B

22

The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it ________.
A) ensures adequate energy for the adrenal glands to operate efficiently
B) stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position
C) is necessary as a barrier between the adrenal glands and kidneys
D) produces vitamin D

B

23

The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of ________.
A) glucose
B) hormones
C) electrolytes
D) plasma protein

D

24

The function of angiotensin II is to ________.
A) constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure
B) decrease the production of aldosterone
C) decrease arterial blood pressure
D) decrease water absorption

A

25

The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________.
A) nephron
B) loop of Henle
C) glomerular capsule
D) basement membrane of the capillaries

A

26

The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis ________.
A) involves FSH and LH release
B) involves posterior pituitary release of regulating hormones
C) is the tight relationship between the cortex and the control of testicular function
D) involves a positive feedback loop control of spermatogenesi

A

27

The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________.
A) by a decrease in the blood pressure
B) when the pH of the urine decreases
C) when the specific gravity of urine rises above 1.10
D) when the peritubular capillaries are dilated

A

28

The most important risk for testicular cancer in young males is ________.
A) smoking
B) a diet high in fat
C) nondescent of the testes
D) sexually transmitted diseases

C

29

The primary function of the uterus is to ________.
A) protect the ovaries
B) synthesize female hormones
C) regulate the ovarian and menstrual cycles
D) receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum

D

30

The renal corpuscle is made up of ________.
A) Bowman's capsule and glomerulus
B) the descending loop of Henle
C) the renal pyramid
D) the renal papilla

A

31

The structures that receive the ovulated oocyte, providing a site for fertilization, are called the ________.

A) infundibula
B) fallopian tubes
C) Graafian follicles
D) fimbriae

B

32

The urinary bladder is composed of ________ epithelium.

A) pseudostratified columnar
B) transitional
C) stratified squamous
D) simple squamous

B

33

What is the most direct function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

A) help regulate blood pressure and the rate of excretion by the kidneys
B) help regulate water and electrolyte excretion by the kidneys
C) help regulate urea absorption by the kidneys
D) help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys

D

34

Which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in solute content of the filtrate?

A) macula densa cells
B) mesangial cells
C) podocytes
D) juxtaglomerular cells

A) macula densa cells

A

35

Which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in solute content of the filtrate?

A) macula densa cells
B) mesangial cells
C) podocytes
D) juxtaglomerular cells

A

36

Which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system?

A) regulates blood glucose levels and produces hormones
B) maintains blood osmolarity
C) helps maintain homeostasis by controlling the composition, volume, and pressure of blood
D) eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat

D

37

28) Which of the choices below is not a function of the vagina?
A) serves as a passageway for the primary oocyte
B) serves as a passageway for menstrual flow
C) is the birth canal
D) receives semen from the penis during sexual intercourse

A

38

Which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)?

A) the stretching of the bladder wall
B) motor neurons
C) the sympathetic efferents
D) the pressure of the fluid in the bladder

A

39

40) Which of the following best describes kidney function in older adults (70 years or older)?
A) Kidney function remains the same throughout life, regardless of age.
B) Only about 3% of older adults have any loss of kidney function.
C) Only obese and diabetic older adults have any kidney dysfunction.
D) Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy.

D

40

Which of the following female structures is homologous to the male scrotum?

Labia Majora

41

5) Which of the following glands are responsible for 70% of the synthesis of semen?
A) the seminal vesicles
B) the bulbourethral glands
C) the prostate
D) the pituitary

A

42

45) Which of the following is a correct statement about uterine tubes?
A) The ampulla is the narrow constricted region.
B) The infundibulum is the funnel-shaped region near the ovary.
C) The isthmus is the normal site of fertilization.
D) The mesometrium supports the uterine tubes along their entire length.

B

43

Which of the following is not true regarding tubular reabsorption?

A) It involves hormonal signals in the collecting ducts.
B) It is a purely passive transport process.
C) It occurs via transcellular or paracellular routes.
D) It is a reclamation process.

B

44

Which of the following occurs as a result of undescended testes?

a) male sex hormones will not be circulated in the body
b) sperm will have no means of exit from the body
c) inadequate or nonviable sperm will be produced
d) inadequate blood supply will retard the development of the testes

C

45

Which of the following phases or processes in the monthly reproductive cycle of the female occur simultaneously?
A) maximal LH secretion and menstruation
B) maximal steroid secretion by the corpus luteum and menstruation
C) early follicular development and the secretory phase in the uterus
D) regression of the corpus luteum and a decrease in ovarian progesterone secretion

D

D

46

Which of the following statements about sperm is not true?
A) They contain very little cytoplasm or stored nutrients.
B) They are sluggish in an alkaline environment.
C) The acrosome is produced by the Golgi apparatus and contains hydrolytic enzymes.
D) The sperm midpiece consists of Golgi bodies spiraled tightly around the contractile filaments of the tail.

B

47

Which of the following statements about spermatogenesis is not true?
A) The spermatogonium forms the primary spermatocyte.
B) The primary spermatocyte forms two secondary spermatocytes.
C) The secondary spermatocytes each form two spermatids.
D) Each spermatid forms two sperm.

D

48

Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption?
A) ADH
B) thyroxine
C) aldosterone
D) atrial natriuretic peptide

A) ADH

A

49

Why doesn’t semen enter the urinary bladder during ejaculation?
A) There is no common duct between the reproductive system and the urinary system.
B) There is no urge to urinate during sexual intercourse because of the suppression of LH by testosterone buildup in the blood.
C) The smooth muscle sphincter at the base of the urinary bladder closes.
D) Ejaculation is a parasympathetic reflex resulting in no response by urinary contraction muscles.

C

50

9) Why is the blood-testis barrier important?
A) because spermatozoa and developing cells produce surface antigens that are recognized as foreign by the immune system
B) because some blood contents are toxic to the spermatozoa
C) because immature sperm cells lose their motility when they encounter any blood component
D) Actually, the blood-testis barrier has no function.

A