social science

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1

CIVIL RIGHTS ACT. 1964

PROHIBITS DISCRIMINATION IN PUBLIC PLACES PROGRAMS RECEIVING FEDERAL FUNDS AND IN EMPLOYMENT AND THE EEOC TO ENFORCE ITS PROVISIONS.

ENFORCED AFTER KENNEDYS ASSASSINATION

2

CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1968.

.

PROHIBIT THE FOLLOWING FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION

A. REFUSAL TO SELL OR RENT

1. DISCRIMINATION AGAINST A PERSON IN THE TERMS IN CONDITIONS OR PRIVILIGES OF THE SALE OR RENTAL OF A DWELLING

2. INDICATION OF A PREFERENCE OR DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF RACE, COLOR, RELIGION, OR NATIONAL ORIGIN IN ADVERTISING THE SALE OR RENTAL OF A DWELLING.

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AFFIRMATIVE ACTION

PREFERENTIAL OR COMPENSATORY TREATMENT OF MINORITIES TO NARROW THE GAP BETWEEN WHITES AND BLACK IN EMPLOYMENT, EDUCATION, AND INCOME.

4

BROWN VS. THE BOARD OF EDUCATION

1954

LANDMARK SUPREME COURT DECISION DECLARING THAT SEGREGATION ITSELF VIOLATES THE EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE

ALLOWED DISEGREGATION IN SCHOOLS.

5

PLESSY VS. FERSUGSON

IN 1896 SEGREGATION WON CONSTITUTIONAL APPROVAL BY THE U.S SUPREME COURT UP UNTIL BROWN VS. BOARD OF EDUCATION WHEN IT WAS REVERSED.

6

PERSONALITY

ALL THE CHARACTERISTICS WAYS OF BEHAVING THAT AN INDIVIDUAL EXHIBITS; IT IS THE CHARACTERISTIC, ENDURING AND ORGANIZED PATTERNS OF THOUGHT, EMOTION, AND BEHAVIOR AN INDIVIDUAL HABITUALLY EXHIBITS WEN SUBJECT TO PARTICULAR STIMULI.

RESPONDING IN A SIMILAR FASHION TO MANY DIFFERENT SITUATIONS.

7

COGNITIVE APPROACH

AN APPROACH TO PSYCHOLOGY THAT EMPHASIZES HOW PEOPLE LEARN ABOUT THEMSELVES AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT.

8

STRATIFICATION

ALL SOCIETIES HAVE A SYSTEM OF CLASSIFYING AND RANKING THEIR MEMBERS WHICH IS A SYSTEM OF STRATIFICATION.

  • SOCIAL STATUS IS ASSOCIATED WITH VARIOUS ROLES THAT INDIVIDUALS PLAY IN THE ECONOMIC SYSTEM.
  • PEOPLE ARE RANKED ACCORDING TO HOW THEY MAKE THEIR LIVING AND POWER THEY EXERCISE OVER OTHERS
  • POWER DERIVES FROM SOCIAL STATUS, THIS INVOLVES UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF POWER
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MIDDLE CLASS

  1. FUTURE ORIENTED, PLAN AHEAD FOR THEMSELVES
  2. MORE CONCERNED WITH IMMEDIATE FAMILY AND WANT THEIR CHILDREN TO GO TO COLLEGE.
  3. CONFIDENT IN THE ABILITY TO INFLUENCE THEIR OWN FUTURE AND NOT REALLY CONCERNED ABOUT EFFECTS THEY HAVE ON THE COMMUNITY , STATE, AND OR NATION.
  4. UPPER MIDDLE CLASS IS COMPOSED OF PEOPLE EMPLOYED IN STABLE OCCUPATIONS; MEDICINCE, LAW, ENGINEERING.
  5. ON THE OTHER HAND THERE ARE MIDDLE CLASS FAMILIES WHO STRUGGLE TO MAINTAIN MIDDLE CLASS EXISTENCE.
  6. LARGEST AND MOST IMPORTANT CLASS IN AMERICAN SOCIETY
10

SOCIAL MOBILITY

THE MOVEMENT OF A PEOPLE UPWARD OR DOWNWARD.

  • SOCIETIES DIFFER GREATLY IN SOCIAL MOBILITY
  • UPWARD WHEN HIGHER STATUS THAN PARENTS, DOWNWARD IF LOWER
  • EDUCATION IS THE MOST COMMON PATH TO SOCIAL MOBILITY,
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WORKING CLASS.

OBLIGATED TO CONCERN THEMSELVES MORE WITH THE PRESENT THAN THE FUTURE.

  1. EXPECT CHILDREN TO MAKE THEIR OWN WAY IN LIFE.
  2. WORK TO MAINTAIN THEMSELVES AND THEIR FAMILIES.
  3. DON'T LOOK AT JOBS AS MEANS OF GETTING AHEAD.
  4. DON'T BELONG TO ORGANIZATIONS OTHER THAN A UNION OR CHURCH
  5. MOSTLY DEMOCRATS, ALTHOUGH LESS LIKELY TO VOTE THAN MEMBERS OF OTHER CLASSES
12

LOWER CLASS

INDIVIDUALS MUST LIVE FROM DAY TO DAY, THEY HAVE LITTLE CONFIDENCE IN THEIR ABILITY TO INFLUENCE WHAT HAPPENS TO THEM.

  1. THEY OFTEN WORK FROM PAYDAY TO PAYDAY.
  2. FREQUENTLY DRIFT FROM 1 UNSKILLED JOB TO ANOTHER
  3. LITTLE ATTACHMENT TO COMMUNITY, AND TEND TO RESENT AUTHORITY.
13

UPPER CLASS

FUTURE ORIENTED, LOOKS FORWARD TO THEIR FUTURE AND THAT OF THEIR CHILDREN AND GRANDCHILDREN.

  1. ARE CONCERNED ABOUT WHAT LIES AHEAD FOR THEIR COMMUNITY, NATION, AND HUMANITY
  2. SELF CONFIDENT AND BELIEVE IN SHAPING THEIR OWN FUTURE
  3. WEALTH PERMITS A WIDE VARIETY OF HOBBIES; THEATER, GOLF, ETC
  4. FEEL THEY HAVE A RESPONSIBILITY TO SERVICE THE COMMUNITY AND DO GOOD
14

CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS

BELIEVING THAT ALL MEMBERS OS ONE'S CLASS HAVE SIMILAR POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC INTERESTS, ADVERSE TO THOSE OF OTHER CLASSES.

  1. MEMBERS OF THE SAME CLASS DO NOT ALWAYS SHARE POLITICAL INTERESTS
  2. AMERICANS DONT HAVE A STRONG SENSE OF CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS
15

FUNCTIONALISM

PERSPECTIVE ON ANTHROPOLOGY THAT EMPHASIZES THAT CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS AND PRACTICES SERVE INDIVIDUAL OR SOCIETAL NEEDS.

  1. THERE ARE CERTAIN MINIMUM BIOLOGICAL NEEDS AS WELL
  2. (in the social sciences) the theory that all aspects of a society serve a function and are necessary for the survival of that society.
16

symbolic interaction theory

Symbolic interaction theory analyzes society by addressing the subjective meanings that people impose on objects, events, and behaviors. Subjective meanings are given primacy because it is believed that people behave based on what they believe and not just on what is objectively true. Thus, society is thought to be socially constructed through human interpretation.

17

conflict theories

Social conflict theory is a Marxist-based social theory which argues that individuals and groups (social classes) within society have differing amounts of material and non-material resources (such as the wealthy vs. the poor) and that the more powerful groups use their power in order to exploit groups with less power.

18

nature vs. nurture

  • Nature refers to all of the genes and hereditary factors that influence who we are – from our physical appearance to our personality characteristics.
    • Nurture refers to all the environmental variables that impact who we are, including our early childhood experiences, how we were raised, our social relationships, and our surrounding culture.
    • different branches of psychology often take a one versus the other approach. For example, biological psychology tends to stress the importance of genetics and biological influences. Behaviorism, on the other hand, focuses on the impact that the environment has on behavior.
19

Maslows Heirarchy of needs

card image

Maslow (1943) stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs. When one need is fulfilled a person seeks to fulfill the next one, and so on.

1. Physiological Needs

These include the most basic needs that are vital to survival, such as the need for water, air, food, and sleep. Maslow believed that these needs are the most basic and instinctive needs in the hierarchy because all needs become secondary until these physiological needs are met.

Most of these lower level needs are probably fairly apparent. We need food and water to survive. We also need to breath and maintain a stable body temperature. In addition to eating, drinking, and having adequate shelter and clothing, Maslow also suggested that sexual reproduction was a basic physiological need.

2. Security Needs

These include the needs for safety and security. Security needs are important for survival, but they are not as demanding as the physiological needs. Examples of security needs include a desire for steady employment, health care, safe neighborhoods, and shelter from the environment.

The needs become a bit more complex at this point in the hierarchy. Now that the more basic survival needs have been fulfilled, people begin to feel that they need more control and order to their lives. A safe place to live, financial security, physical safety, and staying healthy are all concerns that might come into play at this stage.

3. Social Needs

These include needs for belonging, love, and affection. Maslow described these needs as less basic than physiological and security needs. Relationships such as friendships, romantic attachments, and families help fulfill this need for companionship and acceptance, as does involvement in social, community, or religious groups.

4. Esteem Needs

After the first three needs have been satisfied, esteem needs becomes increasingly important. These include the need for things that reflect on self-esteem, personal worth, social recognition, and accomplishment.

At this point, it become increasingly important to gain the respect and appreciation of others. People have a need to accomplish things and then have their efforts recognized. People often engage in activities such as going to school, playing a sport, enjoying a hobby, or participating in professional activities in order to fulfill this need.

Satisfying this need and gaining acceptance and esteem helps people become more confident. Failing to gain recognition for accomplishments, however, can lead to feelings of failure or inferiority.

5. Self-actualizing Needs

This is the highest level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Self-actualizing people are self-aware, concerned with personal growth, less concerned with the opinions of others, and interested fulfilling their potential.

20

AUTHORITARIAN PERSONALITY

Authoritarian personality is a state of mind or attitude characterized by belief in absolute obedience or submission to one's own authority, as well as the administration of that belief through the oppression of one's subordinates.

21

COGNITIVE APPROACH

The Cognitive Approach in psychology is a relatively modern approach to human behaviour that focuses on how we think, with the belief that such thought processes affect the way in which we behave (other approaches take other factors into account, such as the biological approach, which acknowledges the influences of genetics and chemical imbalances on our behaviour).

22

OPERANT CONDITIONING

Operant conditioning (also, “instrumental conditioning”) is a learning process in which behavior is sensitive to, or controlled by, its consequences.

23

REINFORCEMENT THEORY

According to Reinforcement Theory, people learn according to outcomes of behavior. So if a particular behavior is rewarded with something pleasurable, that behavior is more likely to be repeated, and vice versa.

24

SOCIALIZATION

Socialization (or socialisation) is a term used by sociologists, social psychologists, anthropologists, political scientists and educationalists to refer to the lifelong process of inheriting and disseminating norms, customs and ideologies, providing an individual with the skills and habits necessary for participating within his or her own society

25

PSYCHOANALYSIS

Psychoanalysis is a method of treatment that helps people understand themselves, their relationships, and how they behave in the world. Psychoanalytic treatment is based on the idea that we are frequently motivated to act by impulses that we don’t recognize because they originate in our unconscious. These unconscious conflicts can create negative feelings – emotions such as unhappiness, anxiety, or depression – which can be expressed in many ways, including self-destructive behavior, or difficulties with personal relationships or work.

26

BEHAVIORAL THERAPY

Behavioral therapy is a treatment that helps change potentially self-destructing behaviors. It is also called behavioral modification or cognitive behavioral therapy. Medical professionals use this type oftherapy to replace bad habits with good ones. The therapy also helps you cope with difficult situations

27

BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY

Behavioral neuroscience, also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology is the application of the principles ofbiology (in particular neurobiology), to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and non-human animals.

28

FREUD

Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the father of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst

29

ERICKSON

card image

The theory describes eight stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. In each stage the person confronts, and hopefully masters, new challenges. Each stage builds on the successful completion of earlier stages. The challenges of stages not successfully completed may be expected to reappear as problems in the future.

30

PAVLOV

Pavlov (1902) started from the idea that there are some things that a dog does not need to learn. For example, dogs don’t learn to salivate whenever they see food. This reflex is ‘hard wired’ into the dog. In behaviorist terms, it is an unconditioned response (i.e. a stimulus-response connection that required no learning).

31

5TH AMENDMENT

The Fifth Amendment (Amendment V) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights and protects a person against being compelled to be a witness against himself or herself in a criminal case. "Pleading the Fifth" is a colloquial term for invoking the privilege that allows a witness to decline to answer questions where the answers might incriminate him or her, and generally without having to suffer a penalty for asserting the privilege. A defendant cannot be compelled to become a witness at his or her own trial. If, however, he or she should choose to testify, he or she is not entitled to the privilege, and inferences can be drawn from a refusal to answer a question during cross-examination. The Amendment requires that felonies be tried only upon indictment by a grand jury. Federal grand juries can force people to take the witness stand, but defendants in those proceedings have Fifth Amendment privilege until they choose to answer any question. To claim the privilege for failure to answer when being interviewed by police, the interviewee must have explicitly invoked their constitutional right when declining to answer questions.

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19TH AMENDMENT

The 19th Amendment, guaranteeing women the right to vote, is formally adopted into the U.S. Constitution by proclamation of Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby. The amendment was the culmination of more than 70 years of struggle by woman suffragists. Its two sections read simply: “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex” and “Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.”

33

ERA

The Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative is managed by the Australian Research Council (ARC) and was implemented in 2010. The ERA assesses research quality within Australia’s higher education institutions using a combination of indicators and expert review by committees comprising experienced, internationally-recognised experts. Sociology was assessed as part of Cluster Four: Social, Behavioural and Economic Sciences (SBE). The last ERA round was in 2012. The next round is in 2015. Further information is availablehere.