Quick Check Answers Chapter 8 The Sectional Anatomy

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1

8.1 In the adult, what bones provide the connection between the lower extremity and the axial skeleton?

two os coxae

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8.2 What are the boundaries of the gluteal region?

iliac crest superiorly and lower margin of the gluteus maximus muscle inferiorly

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8.3 What is the most lateral muscle in the gluteal region?

tensor fasciae latae

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8.4 What muscle in the gluteal region originates in the pelvis and then passes through the greater sciatic notch to insert on the femur?

piriformis

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8.5 What is the osseous component of the thigh?

Femur

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8.6 What are the four muscles of the quadriceps femoris?

vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius,

and rectus femoris

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8.7 What is the general function of the muscles in the medial compartment of the thigh?

adduct the thigh

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8.8 What is the most lateral muscle in the hamstring group?

biceps femoris

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8.9 What provides most of the arterial blood supply to the thigh?

femoral artery

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8.10 What are the two major nerves in the thigh?

femoral nerve and sciatic nerve

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8.11 What structures form the boundaries of the femoral triangle?

inguinal ligament, adductor longus muscle, and sartorius

muscle

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8.12 What two bones provide the osseous structure of the leg?

tibia and fibula

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8.13 What is the function of the muscles in the anterior compartment of the leg?

Dorsi flexion of the foot and extension of the toes

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8.14 Name the two muscles in the superficial layer of the posterior compartment of the leg.

gastrocnemius and soleus muscles

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8.15 What artery and nerve descend through the leg between the tibialis posterior and soleus muscles?

posterior tibial artery and tibial nerve

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8.16 Where is the popliteal fossa located?

behind the knee

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8.17 What structures form the margins of the popliteal fossa?

diverging tendons of the hamstring muscles and the lateral and medial heads of the gastrocnemius muscle

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8.18 What is the largest bone in the tarsus?

calcaneus

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8.19 How many bones form the instep of the foot?

five metatarsals

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8.20 What is the hallux?

big (or great) toe

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8.21 In transverse sections through the proximal femur, what is the most superficial muscle in the medial compartment?

gracilis muscle

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8.22 Describe how the position of the sartorius muscle changes in proximal and distal regions.

In proximal regions, the sartorius muscle is in the anterior compartment; however, as it descends, it crosses obliquely, and in distal regions, it is on the medial side with the gracilis

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8.23 Intransverse sections through the proximal leg, near the popliteal fossa, what osseous elements are present?

lateral and medial condyles of the tibia and the head of the fibula

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8.24 In transverse sections through the midcalf region, what two muscles are anterior to the interosseous membrane?

tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles

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8.25 What are the two osseous components of the coxal joint?

acetabulum of the os coxa and head of the femur

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8.26 What is the small depression of the head of the femur where the ligamentum teres femoris attaches?

fovea capitis femoris

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8.27 What structure closes the acetabular notch?

transverse acetabular ligament

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8.28 What type of membrane lines the fibrous joint capsule of the hip?

synovial membrane

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8.29 Name three ligaments that reinforce the fibrous joint capsule of the hip.

iliofemoral, pubofemoral, and ischiofemoral ligaments

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8.30 What two nerves are visible in sections of the hip?

femoral nerve and sciatic nerve

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8.31 In transverse sections through the acetabulum, what muscle is closely related to the sciatic nerve in the sciatic notch?

piriformis muscle

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8.32 In sagittal sections through the acetabulum, what is the superior to inferior arrangement of the deep lateral rotator muscles?

piriformis muscle is superior, gemellus muscle is in the

middle, and quadratus femoris is inferior

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8.33 In coronal sections through the acetabulum, what two muscles close the gap of the obturator foramen?

obturator externus and obturator internus muscles

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8.34 In coronal sections through the acetabulum, which is more medial, the pectineus muscle or the gracilis muscle?

gracilis muscle

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8.35 What type of cartilage covers the articulating surfaces of the knee joint?

hyaline cartilage

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8.36 Where are the menisci located in the knee?

between the femoral condyles and the tibial plateaus

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8.37 What ligaments of the knee are intracapsular?

anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments

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8.38 In addition to stabilizing the joint, muscular support associated with the knee has what junction?

move the leg at the knee joint

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8.39 In sagittal sections through the lateral region of the knee joint, what ligament extends from the patella to the tibial tuberosity?

patellar ligament

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8.40 In coronal sections through the knee joint, what ligaments are located in the space between the lateral and medial condyles of the femur?

anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments

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8.41 What are the articulating surfaces of the talocrural articulation?

trochlea of the talus with the distal tibia, talus with the lateral malleolus of the fi bula, and talus with the medial malleolus of the tibia

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8.42 What are the articulating surfaces of the subtalar joint of the ankle?

three facets of the talus articulate with the calcaneus

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8.43 What musculotendinous structure provides support in the posterior region of the ankle?

tendocalcaneus (Achilles tendon)