Biology Lecture 1306 Exam Final (Part 1 of 4)

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1

Plant photosynthesis and the consumption of plants by animals are both examples of what unifying principle of life?

All living organisms use energy.

2

A community of organisms interacting with their physical environment is a(n)

ecosystem

3

Boa constrictors on an island are an example of a(n) ____.

population

4

What feature of genetic mutations can eventually lead to the evolution of new species?

Mutations produce changes in the DNA sequence of a gene.

5

All organisms in the Kingdom ____ can perform photosynthesis.

Plantae

6

An explanation for a biological process that is substantiated by a large body of evidence is called a ____.

Theory

7

Collecting data without a specific hypothesis in mind is called ____.

discovery-based science.

8

Discovery-based science and hypothesis testing are the two major scientific approaches that help us understand biology.

T or F

True

9

What is the appropriate order of the stages of investigating whether maple trees drop their leaves in the autumn because of colder days?

4, 5, 1, 3, 2

(4) The observation is that maple trees drop their leaves in autumn. (5) The hypothesis is that maple trees drop their leaves because of colder temperatures. (1) Maple trees are grown in 2 greenhouses where the only variable is temperature (15°C vs. 10°C). (3) There is no statistical difference in the number of leaves dropped at 10°C as compared to 15°C. (2) The hypothesis is rejected.

10

A researcher tests the hypothesis that large, daily doses of vitamin C help protect against catching the common cold. What would be the best experimental and control group to test this hypothesis?

Experimental group: takes a large, daily dose of vitamin C;
Control group: takes a daily dose of a sugar pill disguised as vitamin C

11

A plant will begin flowering in response to changes in length of daylight, temperature and light quality. This is an example of which unifying principle of life?

Living organisms interact with their environment

12

Which level of organization is common to all life forms?

cell

13

When grouping organisms, which classification is most general for a particular type of organism?

Kingdom

14

A community is composed of different populations of animals and plants.

T or F

True

15

A polar covalent bond is created when ______

bonded atoms have unequal pull on the shared electron, so that the electron spends more time around one atom than the other.

16

16. Mark the following statements as true or false.

The bonds between water molecules are stable.

As temperature drops the bonds between water molecules are less likely to break.

Ice is denser than liquid water at all temperatures

The polar covalent bonds between hydrogen and oxygen atoms within a water molecule create slight positively and negatively charged ends to the molecule.

False

True

False

True

17

Carbon 12, 13, and 14 are isotopes of the same element. They share the same place on the periodic table but possess varying numbers of neutrons. If carbon 12 has 6 protons, how many neutrons will carbon 14 have?

8

18

The atomic number of an atom is

the number of protons in the atom.

19

Isotopes are different forms of the same element that

differ in their number of neutrons.

20

Nitrogen has 7 electrons and can form a maximum of ________ bonds with other elements.

3

21

Carbon has 4 electrons and hydrogen has 1 electron in its outermost electron shell. A carbon atom can form covalent bonds with how many hydrogen atoms?

4

22

When one atom loses an electron to another atom, it results in the formation of

cations and anions that can form ionic bonds.

23

What type of bonding is likely to occur between two water molecules or strands of DNA?

Hydrogen

24

Carbon and hydrogen have similar electronegativities and combine together to form hydrocarbon molecules. What type of bonds form between these atoms?

nonpolar covalent

25

If orange juice has a pH of 4 then it can be described as

an acidic solution.

26

The most significant role played by pH buffers is to

limit major shifts in the amount of H+ and OH- in solution.

27

Helium is an inert gas that rarely reacts with other elements because it has the maximum number of valence electrons in its outer shell.

T or F

True

28

Table salt forms from sodium and chloride via hydrogen bonding.

T or F

False

29

This statement is true when comparing solutions with a pH of 6 and a pH of 8.

The solution with a pH of 6 has a 100 times higher concentration of hydrogen ions than a solution with a pH of 8.

30

Functional groups help define the properties of macromolecules. The _____ functional group(s) is/are found within amino acids, while carbohydrates contain the _____ functional group(s).

amino and carboxyl; hydroxyl

31

Match the monomer with the appropriate macromolecule.

Monosaccharide Nucleotide Fatty Acid Amino Acid

Carbohydrate Nucleic Acid Lipid Protein

32

The plasma membrane is made up of a phospholipid bilayer, with the _____________ of the hospholipids_____________.

hydrophilic heads; sticking out toward the interior and exterior of the cell

33

DNA _______. RNA, on the other hand, ________.

provides the instructions for the specific sequence of amino acids used to build a protein; functions to convert a nucleotide sequence into an amino acid sequence

34

Olive oil and butter both contain fats; however, one is liquid at room temperature and the other is solid. Why?

The low melting point of unsaturated fats is due to double bonds forming structures that stop tightly bound formations

35

The formation of the complex molecules in living organisms is made possible by what property of carbon?

Carbon forms up to 4 covalent bonds.

36

The most hydrophobic molecule is

C2H6

37

Two molecules with identical molecular formulas but different structures are called

isomers

38

The functional group that characterizes an alcohol is

-OH

39

What structure best represents a polymer?

A protein.

40

A dehydration reaction

is used to form polymers

41

Glycogen is to animal cells as ________ is to plant cells.

starch

42

A disaccharide, such as maltose, consists of two molecules of glucose linked by what type of bond?

Glycosidic

43

Fats and fatty acids

are insoluble in water

44

The substance most rich in unsaturated fats is

olive oil

45

A phospholipid has ______ fatty acids attached to glycerol, whereas a fat has _______.

2,3

46

A protein's _______ structure contains helixes and sheets that result from hydrogen bonding between carboxyl and amino groups of the polypeptide chain.

secondary

47

Acetic acid gives vinegar its sour taste. The functional group of this acid is

-COOH

48

The portion of an amino acid that makes the amino acid unique among the 20 different amino acids is

the side chain or R-group

49

The type of macromolecules that can accomplish the widest range of biological functions are

proteins

50

Sickle cell anemia is a condition in which red blood cells exhibit a characteristic "sickle" shape. This arises from a mutation or change in one of the amino acids found in hemoglobin. A single amino acid mutation would directly affect a protein's _______ structure.

primary

51

The most accurate nucleotide base composition of the DNA double helix is

T+G=A+C

52

If a specimen contains 30% adenine in its DNA, how much cytosine will it contain?

20%

53

The key structural difference between DNA and RNA is

DNA contains a different sugar than RNA.

54

Which of the following correctly describes bases that pair with each other in the DNA double helix?

Cytosine bonds with guanine

55

Because carbon and hydrogen share similar electronegativity, they will form nonpolar covalent bonds with each other.

T or F

True

56

Saturated fats are composed of fatty acids with several double bonded carbons.

T or F

False

57

The four nucleotide bases found in DNA are identical to those in RNA.

T or F

False

58

Carbohydrate assembly occurs by

a dehydration reaction between monosaccharides that form polysaccharides and disaccharides

59

Indicate if the following statements about prokaryotes are true or false.

They contain a plasma membrane

They contain internal membrane-bound organelles

They have a cell wall

They have ribosomes

True

False

True

True

60

Ribosomes are the site of

protein synthesis.

61

Cell theory or cell doctrine is based on some basic principles. Choose the description that best addresses these principles.

All living organisms are composed of one or more cells, cells are the smallest units of life, and new cells come only from pre-existing cells by cell division.

62

In order to visualize the fine structure of viruses and cytoskeletal filaments at 10-25 nanometers in diameter the type of microscopy that would be most effective is

transmission electron microscopy.

63

Eukaryotes such as animal and plants cells differ from prokaryotes in that prokaryotes

lack internal compartmentalization

64

The structure that easily distinguishes a plant cell from an animal cell is

chloroplasts

65

Plasma membranes are a feature of

all cells

66

Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that produce

proteins

67

The specialized structure that stores pigments, water, inorganic ions and maintains turgor pressure is the

vacuole

68

The route that most accurately describes secretory protein movement through the endomembrane system would be

rough endoplasmic reticulum→vesicles→ Golgi apparatus→vesicles →plasma membrane

69

Due to the lack of an enzyme to break down lipids, excess accumulation of lipids in the brain leads to a human disease called Tay Sachs syndrome. The organelle most likely to lack the proper enzyme needed for lipid breakdown is

lysosomes

70

When a friends falls to the floor after drinking too much alcohol the organelle that will best help them to detoxify will be

smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

71

Cyanide binds and impairs one of the molecules involved in the oxidative phosphorylation of ATP. The target organelle for cyanide must be

Mitochondria

72

Colorless plastids that store starch in the roots of plants are

amyloplasts

73

The function of eukaryotes membranes include

barriers separating extracellular and intracellular environments.
cell-to-cell adhesion.
cell signaling.

74

Scientists and doctors are interested in using human stem cells cultured in the lab to produce a variety of tissues for transplants, including blood, skin, muscle and nerve cells. To do this the stem cells must go through which process?

Differentation

75

You discover a new single celled organism that has a cell wall and organelles. It could be _____.

a fungi

76

The major macromolecules of the ECM are _____

polysaccharides and proteins.

77

All of the following represent anchoring junctions EXCEPT _____

tight junctions

78

You inject a dye into a cell and observe that it moves into adjacent cells. This would occur through _____.

Gap junctions

79

A group of cells having similar structure and function is called a(n) _____

tissue

80

Which level of organization includes all of the others in the list?

population

81

Changes in ________ represent the predominant cause for biological evolution

genetic makeup

82

In the process of biological evolution, new species may evolve through exchange of genes from one species to another. This process is called ___.

horizontal gene transfer

83

Our species is called Homo sapiens. The first word refers to which taxonomical grouping?

Genus

84

The cytoskeletal structure(s) that are composed of actin and regulate cell shape, cell movement and muscle contraction include

microfilaments

85

The cell wall is a common feature to

prokaryotic and plant cells.

86

The organelle responsible for the biosynthesis of proteins that are destined for secretion by the cell is the

endoplasmic reticulum.

87

Lysosomes digest unneeded intracellular debris through the process of __________.

autophagy

88

Some tissues need to be able to expand and contract, such lungs during breathing and intestines during digestion. Predict which ECM protein would be abundant in these tissues.

Elastin

89

Cell walls contain ____.

cellulose

90

A burn patient is treated with a skin graft, in which healthy skin containing ______ tissue is transplanted from one part of their body to the burned area.

epithelial

91

The heart, skeletal muscles, and blood vessels all contain muscle tissue.

T or F

True

92

Fuels such as gasoline are nonpolar and have high potential energy because they are largely composed of

hydrocarbons

93

The major class of macromolecules that stores energy and makes up the major component of plasma membranes are

lipids

94

Transmission and scanning electron microscopy differ because

transmission electron microscopy shows two-dimensional ultrastructure, while the scanning electron microscopy shows three-dimensional structure.

95

What cell shape is likely to increase surface area-to-volume ratio?

irregular and long

96

16. (2nd Half)

The fluid nature of water is due to hydrogen bonds continually breaking and reforming.

A hydrogen atom of one water molecule binds via a hydrogen bond to a hydrogen atom of another water molecule.

Bonds between water molecules are stronger than the bonds between the atoms within a water molecule.

True

False

False