Micro Test 3 Epidemiology, Flu, and HIV (Part 4)

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1

Define innate immunity.

resistance due to physiological processes of humans that are incompatible with those of the pathogen

2

Give two examples of innate immunity.

correct chemical receptors are not present on human cells

temp and pH may not be compatible with those necessary for pathogen survival

3

What happens if a subject has no innate resistance?

Results in disease

4

What does the first line of defense do?

prevents pathogens from entering the body

5

What are nonspecific first line of defenses?

physical and chemical

includes skin and mucous membranes of the respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems.

6

Few pathogens can penetrate these layers

shedding of dead skin cells removes attached microorganisms

contains epidermal dendritic cells

What skin layer is this?

Epidermis

7

phagocytize pathogens

gives skin strength and pliability to resist abrasions

what skin layer is this?

Dermis

8

How does perspiration secreted by sweat glands help with immunity?

salt can inhibit cell growth by drawing out water

antimicrobial peptides (dermicidins)

Lysozomes ( destroy cell wall of bacteria)

9

How does sebum secreted by oil glands help with immunity?

keeps skin pliable (less likely to break or tear)

lowers pH of skin

10

How do mucous membranes help with immunity?

line all body cavities open to the outside environment

11

What two cells in the epidermis deal with mucous?

Goblet cells - secrete mucous

ciliated cells - propel mucous

12

why is it a good thing that the cells of the epidermis are tightly packed?

prevents entry of pathogens

13

Normal microbiota help protect the body by competing with potential pathogens. How?

Secrete antimicrobial substance (lacrimal glands)

Consumption of nutrients

change pH

help to stimulate second line of defense

provide vitamins to host

14

When pathogens succeed in penetrating the first line of defense what kicks in?

the second line of defense

15

the second line of defense is composed of what?

cells

antimicrobial chemicals

processes

16

This is composed of cells and portions of cells within a fluid called plasma.

Blood

17

This is mostly water containing electrolytes, dissolved gases, nutrients, and proteins,

plasma

18

What is produced when the clotting factors and plasma proteins are removed from plasma?

Serum

19

What are the three formed elements of blood?

Erythrocytes

Platelets

leukocytes

20

What do erythrocytes do?

carry oxygen and carbon dioxide

21

What do platelets do?

involved in clotting

22

What do leukocytes do?

WBC involved in defending the body

(Granulocytes and Agranulocytes)

23

What are granulocytes?

WBC that contain large granules that stain different colors based on the dye used.

24

What are the three granulocytes and what stains are used on them?

Basophils - basic dye methalyene blue

Eosinophils - acidic dye eosin

Neutrophils - stain lilac with a mixture of acidic and basic dyes

25

What two granulocytes phagocytize and are able to diapedesis (more between capillary walls)?

eosinophils and neutrophils

26

This granulocyte is 0.5-1% and releases histamine to mediate inflammation.

basophile

27

This granulocyte is 2-4%, is phagocytic, diapedisis, increased during allergy/parasitic worm infection.

Eosinophile

28

This granulocyte makes up 60-70%, is phagocytic, diapedesis, and is increased during bacterial infections to help mediate inflammation.

Neutrophiles

29

What are the two types of agranulocytes?

lymphocytes and monocytes

30

What kind of agranulocyte is most involved in adaptive immunity?

lymphocyte

31

What kind of agranulocyte leaves the blood and matures into macrophages?

Monocyte

32

This agranulocyte makes up 20-25% and is mostly involved in specific immunity?

lymphocyte

33

This kind of agranulocyte makes up 3-8% and matures into macrophages.

monocyte

34

Fixed macrophages include what?

alveolar macrophages

microglia

kupffer cells

35

Where can you find wandering macrophages?

through out the body

36

In a mononuclear phagocytic system, all macrophages, plus monocytes are attached to what?

endothelial cells

37

This test of WBC can signal signs of disease.

differential white blood cell count

38

Increased eosinophils can indicate what?

allergic reactions or parasitic worm infection

39

Increased leukocytes and neutrophils can indicate what?

bacterial disease

40

Increased in lymphocytes can indicate what?

viral infection

41

What are the mechanisms of the second line of defense?

Phagocytosis

extracellular killing by leukocytes

nonspecific chemical defense

inflammation

fever

42

What are the 5 stages of phagocytosis?

1. chemotaxis of phagocyte to microbes

2. adherance

3. ingestion of microbes by phagocyte

4. killing of microbes by chemicals and other enzymes

5. elimination

43

How do eosinophils attack parasitic worms?

secreting toxins that weaken or kill them

44

How do natural killer lymphocytes (NK cells) work?

by secreting toxins onto the surface of virally infected and cancerous cells

45

How do natural killer lymphocytes (NK cells) differentiate infected cells from normal body cells?

normal body cells have membranes similar to the NK cells

46

How do neutrophils defend against invaders?

produce chemicals that kill nearby invaders

generate extracellular fibers that bind to and kill bacteria

47

what is a complement system?

set of serum proteins

48

What happens in complement activation?

the lysis of the foreign cell

49

How are complement systems activated?

Classical pathway - Ag-Ab activate

Alternate pathway - pathogens and/or products activate

50

The alternate complement pathway is also called the what?

properdin pathway

51

in the alternate complement pathway, activation occurs __________ of antibodies.

independant

52

Why is the alternate complement pathway useful in early stages of infection?

because the antibodies have not yet been made

53

For alternate complement pathway activation to occur, what does it require?

the interaction of three proteins (Properdin Factors B, D, and P) with bacterial or fungal endotoxins or LPS

54

These are protein molecules released by the host cells and nonspecifically inhibit the spread of viral infections.

interferons

55

Interferons are most effective on what kind of virus?

dsRNA viruses

56

What are the three classes of interferons?

Alpha & Beta - early stages of infection

Gamma - later stages, activates macrophages

57

These are small peptides that punch holes in cytoplasmic membranes and interfere with internal signaling and other metabolic processes.

Defensins

58

What can increase defensin production?

inflammation

59

This is a nonspecific response to tissue damage resulting from various causes.

inflammation

60

what is used to characterize inflammation?

redness

heat

swelling

pain

61

what are the two types of inflammation?

chronic and acute

62

Describe acute inflammation.

short lived

developed quickly

usually beneficial

important second line of defense

dilation and increased permeability of the blood vessels

migration of phagocytes

tissue repair

63

Describe chronic inflammation

develops slowly

long lasting

can cause tissue damage

64

What is a fever?

body temp over 37 degrees celcious

65

How is a fever achieved?

pyrogens trigger the hypothalamus to increase the body's core temp

66

What kinds of pyrogens can cause a fever?

bacterial toxins

cyctoplasmic contents of lysed cells

antibody-antigen complexes

interleukin-1 (IL-1)

67

How does IL-1 increase the body temperature?

causes the hypothalamus to secrete prostaglandidn which resets the hypothalamic "thermostat"

68

This initiates muscle contractions, increased metabolic activity, and constriction of blood vessels.

IL-1

69

What happens to the bodys temperature if IL-1 production decreases?

temperature falls

70

What effect does a fever have on interferons?

enhances them

71

Having a fever may enhance what things?

phagocytes

cells of specific immunity

tissue repair

72

Define adaptive immunity

the bodies ability to recognize and defend itself against distinct invaders and their products

73

What cells are involved in adaptive immunity?

T and B cells

74

Define antigens.

molecules that trigger a specific immune response

75

Give some examples of antigens.

components of bacterial cell walls such as capsules, pili, and flagella

proteins of viruses, fungi, and protozoa

76

How do antigens enter the body?

breaks or tears in skin and mucous membranes

direct injection as with a bite or needle

through organ transplant and skin grafts

77

Where do B lymphocytes come from?

arise and mature in red bone marrow

78

Where are B lymphocytes primarily found?

in spleen, lymph nodes, and MALT

79

What is the major function of B lymphocytes?

secretion of antibodies

80

What is another name for an antibody?

Immunoglobulins (Ig)

81

What is an antibody?

soluble proteins that bind antigens

82

Where do antibodies come from?

Secreted by B cells that are actively fighting exogenous antigens

83

What are the 5 classes of antibodies?

IgA

IgD

IgE

IgG

IgM

84

The type of antibody needed to fight an invader depends on what?

type of foreign antigen

portal of entry

antibody function needed

85

the function of this antibody is agglutination and neutralization.

IgA

86

the function of this antibody is unknown.

IgD

87

the function of this antibody is to trigger the release of histamines from basophils and mast cells.

IgE

88

the function of this antibody is complement activation, agglutination, osponization and neutralization and it crosses the placenta to protect the fetus.

IgG

89

The function of this antibody is to complement activation, agglutination, and neutralization.

IgM

90

These are cells produced by B cell proliferation that do no secrete antibodies.

Memory B cells

91

Start on slide 42

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