Leadership Comm 2 Flashcards
Name the 3 dimensions of a leader’s credibility
Competence (knowledge of topic)
Dynamism (perception of confidence, activity, and assertiveness)
Name and explain two tactics that produce a positive emotional climate
Supporting evidence (reasons why a person should comply)
Other benefit (target will benefit, i.e. they will feel good if they help you)
Exchange (trade a goods or service)
According to Yukl and associates’ research on common managerial influence tactics, which strategies would be best for influencing anyone, regardless of status?
Rational persuasion, consultation, collaboration, and inspirational appeals
According to Yukl and associates’ research on common managerial influence tactics, which strategies would be moderately effective for influencing a peer or subordinate?
Ingratiation, exchange, and apprising
According to Yukl and associates’ research on common managerial influence tactics, which strategies have the most limited usefulness? For each, explain why this tactic may backfire.
Deceit, coercion, making the target feel guilty, sad, or selfish.
What is one basic “rule” (i.e., best practice) for negotiation? Explain how this advice helps the negotiator.
Be able to explain the concept and rationale for each of the four steps to problem-solving negotiation
1. Separate the people from the problem (find a common goal instead of trying to "win", being genuine, friendly and trustworthy)
2. Focus on interests, not positions (can blind from other possible ways to get the same or better result)
3. Invent options for mutual gain
4. Insist on objective criteria
Name and define three of the elements that define a “small group.”
Common goal or purpose:
Interdependence: the success of one depends on the others
Specific Size: 3-20 people
Explain two ways in which a “team” differs from a “group.”
Groups have individual work products while a team has collective work products.
Groups have a strong and clearly focused leader while a team has shared leadership goals.
Describe one common misconception about working groups, and explain why it is incorrect.
Name two advantages and two disadvantages of working in groups.
Disadvantages: Not as fun as a team,
What differentiates an appointed leader from an emergent leader? Define each term to highlight the difference between them.
Appointed Leader: Leader is assigned to a group.
Emergent Leader: Natural leader. Process of elimination. Some are eliminated quickly and eventually only one remains.
What kinds of characteristics or behaviors are likely to eliminate a person from contention to be an emergent leader? Be prepared to give three examples.
Too rigid and aggressive
Appear uneducated or uninformed
What are two conditions that would indicate that a meeting is necessary? Why should the group meet in these conditions?
Conflict needs to be resolved
Organizational goals need clarification
Need group consensus for decision
What are two conditions that would indicate that the group should NOT meet? Why not?
Other communication (email, fax, letter memo) would be just as effective
Not sufficient time for adequate preparation
One or more key participants are unavailable
Explain one “best practice” for meeting agendas.
Have a warm up, middle, and cool down. Stressful news goes in the middle.
Describe one common pitfall of group problem-solving. Why is this likely to happen? What is one thing a leader can do to help prevent this from happening?
Signs of close-mindedness lead to stereotyping of outside groups.
Describe Gouran & Hirokawa’s Functional Theory of Group Decision-Making.
Use four tasks: analysis of the problem, goal setting, identification of alternatives, and evaluation of solutions
Define cohesiveness. What is one team-building skill that is likely to improve a team’s cohesiveness?
Establishing clear and inspiring team goals.
Encourage standards of excellence.
When leading a virtual team, a leader must match their message content to the appropriate communication technology. Give an example of a good match, and explain why it is good.
Give an example of an entity that you consider an organization, and explain why it is in an organization according to three of the characteristics that define an organization.
Assumptions, values, and symbols.
Assumption: colors are green and recycle
Values: Friendly and knowledgable staff called baristas.
Symbols: clean, modern buildings. Green aprons.
Name three kinds of organizational symbols and artifacts that serve as elements of organizational culture.
Buildings, products, logos, language, metaphors
Name a kind of rite commonly found in organizational cultures, and give an example from the Zappos video we watched in class or personal example
Rites of parting: On staff, fourth years get special privileges, such as bigger teams, a gift basket, a night of storytelling on how they have impacted the program and people, and the inner circle for a special tradition.
Define two of Schein’s primary mechanisms for shaping organizational culture.
Role modeling, rewards and punishments
Define two of Schein’s secondary mechanisms for shaping organizational culture.
Rites and rituals, physical space
Name one channel through which high expectations are communicated, and explain how communicating high expectations through this channel leads to high performance from followers.
Climate (positive or negative atmosphere)
Input (positive expectations)
Define the Galatea effect.
I believe in me, and therefore I can do it.
Define “public leaders,” and give three examples of different types of public leaders
Voices of social influence that attempt to modify the attitudes and behaviors of mass audiences.
Beyonce, Martin Luther(the monk in Germany), President Ross
In class, we discussed four ways that public leadership is a unique context for leading. Name and explain any two of these.
Name two public relations tasks, and explain how they might help a leader influence public opinion
fund-raising, dealing with customer concerns, organizing persuasive campaigns
Name and describe one characteristic of an “excellent public relations effort”
Supportive structure: nurturing environment that is less formal to allow for an organic atmosphere. Delegated responsibilities, open communication, and enthusiastic participation.
In the realm of public address, what should happen during the pre-speech planning stage?
Audience analysis, planning key points and outline.
Pick any one of the three principal modes of delivery (i.e., impromptu, extemporaneous, etc.), explain what it is, and name one advantage and one disadvantage of this mode.
Manuscript is a completely planned out speech that is generally given word for word. This is good because no information is left out and it can make for a strong delivery however it can also be impersonal, robotic, and very boring if the speaker doesn't deliver excitement.
Give one piece of advice for the use of effective language in public address. Explain why this advice is useful
Know your audience and pay attention to how they respond to the message. React to how they are responding. Seek info about audience from multiple sources.
Give one piece of advice for responding to questions (“Q&A”) in public address. Explain why this advice is useful
Anticipate possible questions and don't be afraid to restate something from the delivery that is relevant and answers the question.
Name one type of special occasion speech that a leader may be called upon to deliver. What is the purpose of this type of speech? Describe two techniques for developing an effective speech of this type.
Commemorative speech's purpose is to celebrate a person and should include detail on certain moments that cause for celebrate as well as a lively tone to create a cheerful atmosphere.
Name two characteristics of successful persuasive campaigns, and explain how they might help a leader influence public opinion
Use media to raise awareness: can fuel interpersonal conversations, and get large number of people to see
Use high credibility sources:
Direct messages to the individual needs of audience:
Define one of the dimensions of cultural patterns from Hofstede’s model, and give an example of one country on each end of the spectrum on this dimension. Explain: How would you expect leaders from these two countries to behave differently based on this comparison?
Cultural beliefs about individualism/collectivism. Some societies believe that the needs and goals of the individual are of more value than the collective whole and group identity and vice versa.
Describe one way in which the GLOBE Studies classification is similar to Hofstede’s model and one way in which it differs from Hofstede’s model.
Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness: relationship between culture and leadership in nine dimensions.
Name and explain two of the GLOBE Studies’ six global leadership behaviors, and give an example of a country where each behavior is viewed most positively
Team-oriented leadership in Turkey focuses on team building and working towards a common goal.
Charismatic/value-based leadership in Colombia or China has the ability to inspire and motivate high performance.
Describe one argument of the “business case” for promoting organizational diversity
Better decision making: cultural differences gives a more cohesive world view and can come up with interesting alternatives to familiar problems.
What is the relationship between prejudice and discrimination? Be sure to define both in your answer.
Prejudice: prejudging someone.
Discrimination: Not giving someone opportunities because of prejudice.
What is ethnocentrism? Why might it be classified as an obstacle to organizational diversity?
Ethnocentrism: one's own race or group is superior. Stunts the growth of group and reduces the motivation of minorities.
How can mindful communication reduce the power of stereotypes and perceptual bias? Be sure to define mindful communication, stereotypes, and perceptual bias in your answer
Mindful communication: focused attention
Stereotypes: giving certain characteristics to a group without getting to know them.
Perceptual bias: predisposition towards a group
How can changes to systems help promote diversity?
One way is to have more liberal time off policies to attract more diverse employees.
A friend asks you whether there are differences in how males and females act as leaders. Give a response that incorporates two pieces of evidence from Eagly’s meta-analysis
Men are more likely to lead in short term groups and task oriented teams. Women are more likely social leaders and in small groups.
What is one possible source of the current state of the gender gap in leadership? Describe how this factor may contribute to the disproportionately small number of women in positions of private and public leadership.
Old boy networks that exclude women.
Based on Baxter’s research on language use, what advice would you give a female interested in leadership about “doing authority” effectively?
Do not portray either a heavy masculine or feminine style of comm. Go for a mixture and be flexible and adopting to the situation.
Thinking of Kelley-Reardon’s research, what does the acronym “DCP” stand for, and what is one example of a DCP that reinforces the bias against women as leaders?
Dysfunctional Communication Patterns. Dismissing contributions by dismissing, ignoring, interrupting or talking over.
Standards of moral conduct
Describe how information management can be considered an area of ethical challenge for leaders
Deception and lying, ether continue to portray a lie or come clean and lose trust.
Describe how responsibility can be considered an area of ethical challenge for leaders
Taking responsibility for the team's actions can be difficult for some leaders when they feel it was not their fault.
Describe how power can be considered an area of ethical challenge for leaders
Determining how much power to use can be an ethical dilemma if coercion is used.
Describe how privilege can be considered an area of ethical challenge for leaders
How much to take advantage of certain privileges.
Describe how loyalty can be considered an area of ethical challenge for leaders.
Being loyal to company and putting the needs of others before their own.
Describe how consistency can be considered an area of ethical challenge for leaders
Deciding when to bend the rules. Need to keep trust by doing what you say you're going to do.
Name and describe any one of the four components of ethical behavior
Moral judgement is determining which component is the right one to follow.
Name three of the characteristics that Aristotle used to describe the ideal citizen / leader.
honesty, competent, courage, justice, generosity.
What defines an “authentic leader”?
Promotes self awareness and acts on their self understanding.