Topic J: Virology

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created 6 years ago by Sharleezybby
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1

Virus

Term was first used by Louis Pasteur, meaning poison

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Virus

Infectious agent

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Virus

Not cells, no cellular organization

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Virus

Do not grow nor divide, but replicate only in a living host

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Viron

Virus particle

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Prion

Infectious protein

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Components of viruses

Nucleic acids, capsids, envelopes, sizes, host range & specificity of virus

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Nucleic acids

Either DNA or RNA

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Nucleic acids

Between 4-100s genes

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Nucleic acids

Either single-stranded or double-stranded

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Nucleic acid shapes

Linear, circular, or segmented

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Capsids

Protein coat surrounding the nucleic acid used as protection

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Capsids

Determines the shape of the virus

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Subunites of the capsids

Capsomeres

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Capsomeres

Help with identification & classification

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Types of capsids

Helical, Icosahedron, & Complex

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Helical

Rod-shaped

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Icosahedron

Fastids, 3-dimensional, dome-shaped, 20 sided, and/or symmetrical

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Complex

Virus infectant & bacteriophage

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Envelopes

Not around all viruses

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Envelopes

Made of a combination of macromolecules: lipids, proteins, & carbohydrates

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Glycoproteins

Spikes/surface projections that allow the virus to attach to the host cell

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Submicroscopic

Cannot be seen with a light microscope

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Host range

The spectrum of hosts that the virus infects

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Specificity of virus

Most viruses are limited to only one host & only specific cells of the host

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Classification of viruses

Naked or enveloped, nucleic acid chemistry (DNA or RNA), animal, plant, or bacterial, helical or icosahedral, 3 orders, 73 families, & 287 genera

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3 orders of viruses

Caudovirales, Mononegavirales, & Nidovirales

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Suffix for virus families

-viradae

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Suffix for virus genera

-virus

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Lysogenic

Does not destroy the cell

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Lysogenic

Virus attaches, vital genetic material joins with bacterial genetic material

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Lytic

Bursting and killing cell

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Plaque

Cells that get lysed

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5 steps of viral replication

Adsorption, penetration, biosynthesis, maturation/assembly, & release

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Adsorption

Attachment to host (hypodermic injection)

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Penetration

Entry of the viron genome into the host

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Biosynthesis

Synthesis of new nucleic acid as well as other components

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Maturation/assembly

Assembly of newly viral components

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Release

Departure of new virons