Module 1 Review

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Microbiology
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1

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek was the first person in history to

A) use a magnifying glass.
B) develop a taxonomic system.
C) view protozoa and bacteria.
D) disprove spontaneous generation.
E) prove the germ theory.

C

2

Microbes that can live in the presence or absence of oxygen are called

A) anaerobes.
B) facultative anaerobes.
C) obligate parasites.
D) archaea.
E) prokaryotes.

B

3

Which of the following scientists provided evidence in favor of the concept of spontaneous generation?

A) Pasteur
B) Needham
C) Redi
D) Buchner
E) Spallanzani

B

4

Which of the following statements concerning Koch's postulates is FALSE?

A) Koch's postulates cannot be used to demonstrate the cause of all diseases.
B) A suspected pathogen must be able to be grown in the laboratory.
C) All of Koch's postulates must be satisfied before an organism can be proven to cause a particular disease.
D) Koch's postulates involve the experimental infection of susceptible hosts.
E) A suspected pathogen must be found in the majority of individuals with a particular disease.

E

5

What scientist first hypothesized that gene sequences could provide new insights into evolutionary relationships between organisms such as microbes?

A) Woese
B) Avery
C) Ehrlich
D) Kluyver
E) Pauling

E

6

According to Kluyver and van Niel, which of the following are true of basic biochemical reactions?

A) They are shared by all living things.
B) There are an unlimited number of them.
C) They primarily involve the transfer of electrons and ions.
D) Basic biochemical reactions shared by all living things primarily involve transfer of electrons and hydrogen ions.
E) They primarily involve transfers of chemical groups

D

7

Paul Ehrlich used chemotherapy to treat

A) cholera.
B) cancer.
C) anthrax.
D) smallpox.
E) syphilis.

E

8

Which of the following was NOT an aspect of Pasteur's experiments to disprove spontaneous generation?

A) The necks of the flasks he used were bent into an S-shape.
B) He boiled the infusions to kill any microbes present.
C) The flasks were incubated for very long periods of time.
D) The flasks were free of microbes until they were opened.
E) The flasks he used were sealed with corks.

E

9

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of protozoa?

A) Most exhibit asexual reproduction.
B) They are single-celled organisms.
C) They are eukaryotic organisms.
D) They are the microbes most similar to plants.
E) They frequently possess cilia or flagella.

D

10

Put the following events in the history of microbiology in order, from the earliest to the latest:
I. Leeuwenhoek observes microbes using a microscope.
II. Pasteur disproves spontaneous generation.
III. Woese discovers the archaea.
IV. Fracastoro proposes that "germs" cause disease.
V. Ehrlich discovers the first "magic bullet."

A) III, IV, I, II, V
B) V, IV, I, III, II
C) IV, I, V, II, III
D) III, V, II, IV, I
E) IV, I, II, V, III

E

11

Which of the following is an INCORRECT pairing?

A) protozoa: multicellular
B) fungi: cell walls
C) algae: aquatic and marine habitats
D) prokaryotes: no nuclei
E) viruses: acellular parasites

A

12

Who discovered penicillin?

A) Fleming
B) Ehrlich
C) Kitasato
D) Pasteur
E) Domagk

A

13

Which of the following is a particle that is found in the nucleus of an atom and has no electrical charge?
A) electron
B) neutron
C) element
D) proton
E) isotope

B

14

An atom is electrically neutral when
A) the number of electrons equals the number of neutrons.
B) the numbers of its protons, electrons, and neutrons are all equal.
C) it has no extra electrons in its valence shell.
D) the number of protons equals the number of neutrons.
E) the number of electrons equals the number of protons.

E

15

All of the following are associated with atomic structure EXCEPT
A) valence.
B) dalton.
C) monomer.
D) electron shell.
E) neutron.

C

16

The type(s) of bond produced when atoms share electrons equally is(are)
A) a nonpolar covalent bond.
B) a hydrogen bond.
C) an ionic bond.
D) a polar covalent bond.
E) polar covalent and ionic bonds.

A

17

Which of the following types of chemical bonds do carbon atoms generally NOT form?
A) nonpolar covalent bonds
B) polar covalent bonds
C) ionic bonds
D) hydrogen bonds
E) both ionic and hydrogen bonds

E

18

Which of the following is an INCORRECT pairing?
A) electrolytes: anions
B) synthesis: endothermic
C) hydrolysis: hydrogen bonds
D) catabolism: exothermic
E) dehydration: anabolism

C

19

An acid dissociates in water to release
A) hydrogen ion(s).
B) cation(s).
C) hydroxyl group(s).
D) anion(s).
E) both anions and hydrogen ions.

E

20

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of saturated fats?
A) They are usually solid at room temperature.
B) They contain at least one double bond.
C) They are found in animals.
D) Their fatty acids pack tightly together.
E) They are a form of stored energy.

B

21

Organisms use carbohydrates in all of the following ways EXCEPT
A) as a component of cell walls.
B) as a long-term energy source.
C) as a short-term energy source.
D) to keep membranes flexible at low temperatures.
E) as a building block of DNA and RNA molecules.

D

22

Which of the following statements about proteins is FALSE?
A) They are composed of amino acids.
B) They have multiple levels of structural organization.
C) They can be hydrophobic, hydrophilic, or both.
D) Their primary function is energy storage.
E) They are formed by dehydration synthesis reactions.

D

23

Tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins involves ________ bonds.
A) hydrogen
B) ionic
C) polar covalent
D) nonpolar covalent
E) ionic, hydrogen, polar, and nonpolar covalent

E

24

All of the following bases are found in RNA molecules EXCEPT
A) adenine.
B) thymine.
C) uracil.
D) cytosine.
E) guanine.

B

25

Which of the following is an INCORRECT pairing?
A) primary structure: amino acid sequence
B) secondary structure: disulfide bridges
C) tertiary structure: covalent bonds
D) quaternary structure: two or more polypeptides
E) secondary structure: β-pleated sheets

B

26

An increase in the pH of a solution by 2 whole numbers represents a change in the number of hydrogen ions by what factor?
A) 2
B) 20
C) 1000
D) 10
E) 100

E

27

Plant cell walls are composed of ________ held together by ________.
A) polysaccharides, hydrogen bonds
B) amino acids, peptide bonds
C) disaccharides, hydrophobic interactions
D) fatty acids, polar covalent bonds
E) peptidoglycan, ionic bonds

A