Pathology Terms

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1

Acute bronchitis

Infection and inflammation of bronchial airways

2

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

Acute life threatening condition of lung injury that develop secondary to some other lung trauma or disorder

3

Allergic rhinitis

Inflammation of the nasel membranes caused by allergies

4

Asbestisis

Respiratory disease caused by chronic or repetitive inhalation of asbestos fibers

5

Asthma

Disease marked by episodic narrowing and inflammation of the airways, resulting in wheezing SOB, and cough

6

Atelectasis

Partial collapse of the alveoli and tiny airways of the lung

7

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

A skill often taught in first- aid courses that help restore a victims breathing and circulation

8

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Group of diseases in which air sacs are destroyed and chronic, severe SOB results

9

Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP)

Respiratory disease caused by chronic or repetitive and hailing of coal dust often called black long or anthracosis

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Coryza

Acute inflammation of the nasel mucosa; common cold

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Crackles

Abnormal crackly lung sound- like the sound of rice krispies- heard with a stethoscope caused by air passing over retain secretions or by the sudden opening of collapsed Airways

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Croup

Acute viral disease usually in children marked by a barking seal like cough and respiratory distress

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Cystic fibrosis

Fatal genetic disease that causes frequent respiratory infections increase airway secretions and COPD in children

14

Deviated septum

Condition in which the nasal septum is displaced to the side causing the two nares nasal pathways to be unequal

15

Emphysema

Disorder mark by abnormal increase in the size of air spaces distill to the terminal bronchiole and destruction of the alveolar walls, resulting in loss of normal elasticity and in progressive dyspnea

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Empyema

Collection of infected fluid between the two pleural membranes that line the lungs

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Epistaxis

Episode of bleeding from the nose commonly known as a nosebleed

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Hemoptysis

Coughing up blood from the respiratory tract

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Hemothorax

Condition in which blood or bloody fluids has collected within the intrapleural space causing lung compression and respiratory distress

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Histoplasmosis

Systemic respiratory disease caused by histoplasma capsulatum a fungus founded in soil contaminated with bird droppings

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Hypercapnia

Chronic retention of CO2 causing symptoms of mental cloudiness and lethargy

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Influenza

Common contagious acute viral respiratory illness commonly called the flu

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Laryngitis

Condition of inflammation of the larynx, evidence did buy a temporary hoarseness or loss of voice

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Legionellosis

Bacterial infection caused by the bacterium legionella pneumophila

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Nasal polyps

Rounded tissue growth on the nasal or sinal mucosa

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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

Dysfunctional breathing that occurs when the upper airway is blocked during during sleep

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Orthopnea

Labored breathing that occurs when lying flat and improves when sitting up

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Pharyngitis

Inflammation of the pharynx; commonly called sore throat

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Pleural effusion

Excess collection of fluid in intrapleural space

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Pleurisy

Condition in which the pleurae became inflamed, causing sharp inspiratory chest pain; also called pleuritis

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Pneumoconiosis

Any diseases of the respiratory tract caused by chronic or repetitive of inhalation of dust particles

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Pneumonia

Bacteria or viral infection of the lungs

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Pneumothorax

Condition in which air collects in the intrapleural space; categorized as open, closed, spontaneous, or tension, and commonly called collapsed lung

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Pulmonary embolism (PE)

Sudden obstruction of a pulmonary blood vessel by debris, blood clots, or other matter

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Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)

Contagious infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis organism primarily affecting the lungs but sometimes also spreading to that affecting other organ systems

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Rhonchi

Course, gurgling sound heard in the lungs with a stethoscope, caused by secretions in the air passages

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Silicosis

Respiratory disease caused by chronic or repetitive inhale inhale a shin of silica (quartz) dust

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Sinusitis

Inflammation of the lining of the sinus cavities

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Stridor

High- pitched upper- airway sound heard without a stethoscope, indicating airway obstruction; a medical emergency

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Upper respiratory infection (URI)

Infection and inflammation of upper -airway -structures, usually caused by a virus, often called the common cold

41

Wheeze

Somewhat musical sound heard and lungs usually when a stethoscope caused by partial airway obstruction such as asthma

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Arterial blood gases (ABG)

Measurements of o2 and co2 levels and acid-base balance pH balance in arterial blood

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Bronchoscopy

Visual examination of the airways and of the lungs

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Chest X-ray (CXR)

Radiological picture of the lungs

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Mantoux test

Intradermal injection of tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) just beneath the surface of the skin to identify whether the patient have been exposed to tuberculosis

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Metered dose inhaler (MDI)

Handheld device used to deliver medication to the patient's lower airways

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Nebulizer

Device that produces a fine spray or mace to deliver medication to a patient's deep Airways

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Pleurodesis

Infusion of a sterile, irritating substance into the pleural space causing the pleural to fuse to one another by developing scar tissue

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Postural drainage

Placement of the patient I'm various positions that facilitate drainage of secreation from the lungs often done along with chest physiotherapy (CPT)

50

Pulmonary angiography

Radiographic examination of pulmonary circulation after injection of contrast dye

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Pulmonary function tests (PFTs)

Group of Tessa provide information regarding a lung capacity sometimes called spirometer

52

Pulse oximetry

Indirect measurement of arterial blood to saturation level also known as spo2 normal level in a person with healthy lungs is 97% to 99%

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Sputum analysis

Examination of mucus or fluid coughed up from the lungs

54

Thoracentesis

Surgical puncture of the chest wall to remove fluid from the interpleural all space also called pleurocentesis

55

Vital capacity (VC)

Measurement of the volume of air that can be exhaled held after maximum inspiration