American Government Review 3

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Chapters 4,5,6,7,8 and 11
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1

Civil Rights

rights of individuals to receive equal treatment and to be free from discrimination

2

Civil Liberties

the individuals’ protection from improper government action

3

Exclusionary Rule (fourth amendment)

courts ability to exclude evidence obtained in violation of the fourth amendment. (Prohibits evidence obtained during illegal search to be used)

4

Double Jeopardy(Fifth Amendment)

the right providing that a person can not be tried twice for the same crime.

5

Miranda Rule/Rights

that persons under arrest must be informed prior to police interrogation of their rights to reman silent and to have the benefit of legal counsel.

6

Eminent Domain

the right of the government to take private property for public use as long as person receives compensation

7

Jim Crow Law(1870)

laws passed in the South after the reconstruction period that created separate but equal( laws that discriminated against African Americans)

8

Literacy Test

a written test which was given and had to be passed before you could vote.

9

Poll Taxes

tax that was charged in border to vote, to keep the blacks or minorities form voting.

10

Grandfather Clauses

if provision in which an old law will still apply some existing situations, while a new rule apply to all future cases.

11

Litigation

attempting to change the law through the judicial system. (initially breaking the law in order to change/over turned)

12

White Primaries

primaries that were held for the white people first and once they choose who they wanted the black were then allowed to vote.

13

Political Ideology

a cohesive set of beliefs that form a general philosophy about government.

14

Public Opinion

the values and attitudes that people have about issues ,events, and personalities.

15

Political Socialization

the processes by which we come to form beliefs .

16

Tracking Poll

when the same group of people is asked the same question over a period of time to see if their opinion has changed

17

Sound Bite

a short and catchy quote to add some pizzazz to a radio or television announcement or advertisement

18

The Equal Time Rule

if a station sells air time to one candidate, it cannot refuse to sell to the opponent

19

Suffrage

the right to vote aka (Franchise)

20

Pluralism

- a theory that citizens connect to the government through interest groups that compete in the public sphere

- desired result compromise and moderation

21

Political Participation

activities designed to influence government

22

Political efficacy

perception that one has the ability to influence government and politics.

23

Interest Group

organization that tries to influence the government's programs and policies.

24

Why a bill of rights?

those fearing the national government would be to strong and abuse power wanted guarantees against the abuse poor with regard to the individual rights .

25

What is the bill rights?

the first 10 amendments of the U.S constitution.

26

What took the bill of rights from applying only to the national government and also made it apply to the states?

The 14th ammendment makes the bill of rights apply to both state and the National government

27

What is the "establishment clause" of the First Amendment?

Congress can't pass any law that favors one religion over another

28

What is the "free exercise clause" of the First Amendment?

Free to practice any religion or not practice as long as no harm is caused or laws are broken

29

What does the Lemon Test do?

Allows government to provide support to religious establiments, but only materials that are unreligious.

30

What type of speeches are not protected by the First Amendment?

Slander, Libel,and Obscenity

31

Which amendments give rights to an accused person?

Starts with the 4th amendment then continues to 5th & 6th Amendment

32

Why are the rights of an accused person important?

they protect the individual's liberty

33

What are some rights of an accused person?

- Right to an attorney
- Right to a trial by jury
- Right to silence

34

Dred Scott(Decision)v Sanford When? What did do?

In1857 a case were a slave & his wife sued for his and his wife's freedom from Missouri state

35

What was the Missouri compromise?

- was unconstitutional

- ruled that slaves weren't citizens of the U.S. and neither were their descendants

- sparked the Civil War

36

What was the Seneca Falls Convention?

1st large conference where women's right of equality was questioned

37

Where and when was the Seneca Falls Convention?

New York ( 1848)

38

What were the Post Civil War Amendments?

The 13th,14th and 15th, amendment

39

What did the Post Civil War Amendments do?

-13th abolish slavery

-14th grant former slaves citizenship

-15th gave former slaves the right to vote.

40

What was the Plessy vs. Ferguson case?

it recognized discrimination, was a segregated case that fought against the separate but equal laws although they were not equal.

41

What gave women the right to vote?

the 19th Amendment

42

When did women get the right to vote?

1920

43

What was the Brown v. Board of Education?

unanimous decision ruling that seperate but equal in school is inherently unequal,because it was predicated on the idea of racial superiority,(was to end segregation in the schools, began the racial integration schools).

44

When was the Brown v. Board of Education?

In 1954

45

Why did the Equal Rights Amendment fail to become part of the Constitution?

Passed congress but never got enough ratification ¾ of the state

46

What are some agencies of political socialization?

media,family,peer,school

47

Identify key tenets of liberal ideologies?

- Government should take active role to make sure people are equal
- Believe in Pro-choice
- Limiting spending on Military
- Prayer should be kept out of school

48

Identify key tenets of conservative ideologies?

- Believe in basic family value
- Pro-life
- Smaller limited government
- Prayer allowed in school

49

Of the four media types, which is the least regulated by the government?

Print is the most protected

50

What are some non-voting forms of political participation?

written letters, signing petitions, lobbying, protest

51

Identify among demographic groups of age, level of education, and wealth; and their comparative levels of political participation?

-The lower the income level the less they will vote

- The more educated you are the more you will vote

- The older in age the more they will vote

52

How have men and women voted differently since 1980?

- women vote Democratic

- men vote Republican

53

What are some examples of Jim Crow Laws?

- Literacy test

- Grandfather Clause

- White primaries

- Poll taxes