MANA 3335 Chapter 15: Managing Communication

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1

Communication

leadership based on an exchange process in which followers are rewarded for good performance and punished for poor performance

2

Perception

the process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments

3

Perceptual filters

the personality-, psychology-, or experience-based differences that influence people to ignore or pay attention to particular stimuli

4

Selective perception

the tendency to notice and accept objects and information consistent with our values, beliefs, and expectations, while ignoring or screening inconsistent information

5

Closure

the tendency to fill in gaps of missing information by assuming that what we don’t know is consistent with what we already know

6

Attribution theory

the theory that we all have a basic need to understand and explain the causes of other people’s behavior

7

Defensive bias

the tendency for people to perceive themselves as personally and situationally similar to someone who is having difficulty or trouble

8

Fundamental attribution error

the tendency to ignore external causes of behavior and to attribute other people’s actions to internal causes

9

Self-serving bias`

the tendency to overestimate our value by attributing successes to ourselves (internal causes) and attributing failures to others or the environment (external causes)

10

Encoding

putting a message into a written, verbal, or symbolic form that can be recognized and understood by the receiver

11

Decoding

the process by which the receiver translates the written, verbal, or symbolic form of a message into an understood message

12

Feedback to sender

in the communication process, a return message to the sender that indicates the receiver’s understanding of the message

13

Noise

anything that interferes with the transmission of the intended message

14

Jargon

vocabulary particular to a profession or group that interferes with communication in the workplace

15

Formal communication channel

the system of official channels that carry organizationally approved messages and information

16

Downward communication

communication that flows from higher to lower levels in an organization

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Upward communication

communication that flows from lower to higher levels in an organization

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Horizontal communication

communication that flows among managers and workers who are at the same organizational levels

19

Informal communication channel (grapevine)

the transmission of messages from employee to employee outside of formal communication channels

20

Coaching

communicating with someone for the direct purpose of improving the person’s on-the-job performance or behavior

21

Non-verbal communication

any communication that doesn’t involve words; almost always accompanies verbal communication and may either support or contradict it

22

Kinesics

movements of the body and face

23

Paralanguage

the pitch, rate, tone, volume, and speaking pattern (use of silences, pauses, or hesitations) of one’s voice

24

Communication medium

the method used to deliver an oral or written communication

25

Hearing

the act or process of perceiving sounds

26

Listening

making a conscious effort to hear

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Active listening

assuming half the responsibility for successful communication by actively giving the speaker nonjudgmental feedback that shows you’ve accurately heard what he or she said

28

Empathetic listening

understanding speaker’s perspective and personal frame of reference and giving feedback that conveys that understanding to the speaker

29

Destructive feedback

feedback that disapproves without any intention of being helpful and almost always causes a negative or defensive reaction in the recipient

30

Constructive feedback

feedback intended to be helpful, corrective, and/or encouraging

31

Online discussion forums

the in-house equivalent of Internet newsgroups. By using web- or software-based discussion tools that are available across the company, employees can easily ask questions and share knowledge with each other

32

Televised/videotaped speeches and meetings

speeches and meetings originally made to a smaller audience that are either simultaneously broadcast to other locations in the company or videotaped for subsequent distribution and viewing

33

Organizational silence

when employees withhold information about organizational problems or issues

34

Company hotlines

phone numbers that anyone in the company can call anonymously to leave information for upper management

35

Survey feedback

information that is collected by surveys from organizational members and then compiled, disseminated, and used to develop action plans for improvement

36

Blog

a personal website that provides personal opinions or recommendations, news summaries, and reader comments