MANA 3335 Chapter 13: Motivation

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1

Motivation

the set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people persist in their efforts to accomplish a goal

2

Needs

the physical or psychological requirements that must be met to ensure survival and well-being

3

Extrinsic rewards

a reward that is tangible, visible to others, and given to employees contingent on the performance of specific tasks or behaviors

4

Intrinsic rewards

a natural reward associated with performing a task or activity for its own sake

5

Equity theory

theory that states that people will be motivated when they perceive that they are being treated fairly

6

Inputs

in equity theory, the contributions employees make to the organization

7

Outcomes

in equity theory, the rewards employees receive for their contributions to the organization

8

Referents

in equity theory, others with whom people compare themselves to determine if they have been treated fairly

9

Outcome/Input (O/I) ratio

in equity theory, an employee’s perception of how the rewards received from an organization compare with the employee’s contributions to that organization

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Underreward

a form of inequity in which you are getting fewer outcomes relative to inputs than your referent is getting

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Overreward

a form of inequity in which you are getting more outcomes relative to inputs than your referent

12

Distributive justice

the perceived degree to which outcomes and rewards are fairly distributed or allocated

13

Procedural Justice

the perceived fairness of the process used to make reward allocation decisions

14

Expectancy Theory

the theory that people will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance, that good performance will be rewarded, and that they will be offered attractive rewards

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Valence

the attractiveness or desirability of a reward or outcome

16

Expectancy

the perceived relationship between effort and performance

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Instrumentality

the perceived relationship between performance and rewards

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Reinforcement theory

the theory that behavior is a function of its consequences, that behaviors followed by positive consequences will occur more frequently, and that behaviors followed by negative consequences, or not followed by positive consequences, will occur less frequently

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Reinforcement

the process of changing behavior by changing the consequences that follow behavior

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Reinforcement contingencies

cause-and-effect relationships between the performance of specific behaviors and specific consequences

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Schedule of reinforcement

rules that specify which behaviors will be reinforced, which consequences will follow those behaviors, and the schedule by which those consequences will be delivered

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Positive reinforcement

reinforcement that strengthens behavior by following behaviors with desirable consequences

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Negative reinforcement

reinforcement that strengthens behavior by withholding an unpleasant consequence when employees perform a specific behavior

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Punishment

reinforcement that weakens behavior by following behaviors with undesirable consequences

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Extinction

reinforcement in which a positive consequence is no longer allowed to follow a previously reinforced behavior, thus weakening the behavior

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Continous reinforcement schedule

a schedule that requires a consequence to be administered following every instance of a behavior

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Intermittent reinforcement schedule

a schedule in which consequences are delivered after a specified or average time has elapsed or after a specified or average number of behaviors has occurred

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Fixed Interval reinforcement schedule

an intermittent schedule in which consequences follow a behavior only after a fixed time has elapsed

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Variable interval reinforcement schedule

an intermittent schedule in which the time between a behavior and the following consequences varies around a specified average

30

Fixed ratio reinforcement schedule

an intermittent schedule in which consequences are delivered following a specific number of behaviors

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Variable ratio reinforcement schedule

an intermittent schedule in which consequences are delivered following a different number of behaviors, sometimes more and sometimes less, that vary around a specified average number of behaviors

32

Goal

a target, objective, or result that someone tries to accomplish

33

Goal setting theory

the theory that people will be motivated to the extent to which they accept specific, challenging goals and receive feedback that indicates their progress toward goal achievement

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Goal specifity

the extent to which goals are detailed, exact, and unambiguous

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Goal difficulty

the extent to which a goal is hard or challenging to accomplish

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Goal accpetance

the extent to which people consciously understand and agree to goals

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Performance feedback

information about the quality or quantity of past performance that indicated whether progress is being made toward the accomplishment of a goal