Social Psychology Exam 2

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Preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members

Prejudice is an attitude (affect, thoughts/beliefs, behavior)

Supported by stereotypes


Implicit Prejudice

Automatic (Measured speed of associations)

Primitive regions of brain associated with fear (amygdala) are activated

Different brain regions are associated with automatic (implicit) and consciously controlled stereotyping (explicit)


Explicit Prejudice


Prefrontal Cortex is activated



Prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race



Prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given sex


Stereotype vs. Discrimination

Stereotype- A Belief about the personal attributes of a group of people. Stereotypes are sometimes overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information (and sometimes accurate).

To stereotype is to generalize

Discrimination- Unjustified negative Behaviors toward a group or its members


Benevolent Sexism

Actions that treat the other group as less competent or weak

Implies weakness or lower status

Target group does not always have to be disliked to be viewed as lower in social status

Target of prejudice can be loved

Ex. Women


Social Sources of Prejudice

Social Inequalities

Unequal Status

Helps justify the economic and social advantages of those who have wealth and power

Upper-class tend to see people’s fortunes as outcomes they have earned (not as a result of having money, connections, and good luck)

Social Dominance Orientation


Authoritarian Personality



Institutional Supports


Social Dominance Orientation

Tend to view people in terms of hierarchies- tend to notice status differences

Being in a dominant high-status position tends to promote this orientation and justification



Believing in the superiority of one’s own ethnic and cultural group, and having a corresponding disdain for all other groups


Authoritarian Personality

Personality that is disposed to favor obedience to authority and intolerance of out-groups/those of lower status

Inflexible, right/wrong way of thinking

Aggressive/punitive to those below them (and obedient to those above them)

Often faced harsh discipline during childhood

More likely to be prejudice or discriminatory


Realistic Group Conflict Theory

Competition of resources between groups (Groups are in conflict for the same resources)

Prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources

Peace between groups is easier during prosperous times


Social Identity

The “we” aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to “Who am I?” that comes from our group memberships

Group Serving Bias

We categorize, we identify, we compare


Ingroup Bias

When our group succeeds, we feel better by identifying strongly with it

Supports a positive self-concept

Need for status, self regard, and belonging


Stigma Consciousness

How much we expect others to stereotype us

Person’s expectation of being victimized by prejudice or discrimination

Live with ongoing stress- lower well-being


Outgroup Homogenity Effect

Perception of out-group members as more similar to one another than are in-group members

Ex. They are alike, we are diverse


Own-Age Bias

Tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own age

Ex. I can recognize the individuals in my own age group better than my grandma's friends. For example, I know Natalie from Sheena. But not Gertrude from Agnus from Beatrice.


Own-Race Bias

Tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own race

Ex. When I confused Juan for Michael Salas


Example of llusory Correlation that may feed prejudice thinking


is the phenomenon of perceiving a relationship between variables, even when no such relationship exists.

Distinctive events foster illusory correlations

Stereotypes assume a correlation between group membership and individuals’ presumed characteristics

Attentiveness to unusual occurrences can create illusory correlations


Group Serving Bias

Fundamental attribution error (we are focused on individual and not the situation

Explaining away outgroup members’ positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions

Less for disadvantaged groups and groups that value modesty


Just World Phenomenon

Tendency of people to believe that the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get



Accommodating individuals who deviate from one’s stereotype by thinking of them as “exceptions to the rule”



Accommodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by forming a new stereotype about this subset of the group


Stereotype Threat

Disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype, that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype

GOOGLE: Stereotype threat is a situational predicament in which people are or feel themselves to be at risk of confirming negative stereotypes about their social group.


Hostile Aggression

—Aggression that springs from anger; its goal is to injure


Instrumental Aggression

—Aggression that is a means to some other end


Biological Aspect of Aggression

Instinct theory and evolutionary psychology

—Innate, unlearned behavior pattern exhibited by all members of a species

—Neural influences

—Abnormal brains can contribute to abnormally aggressive behavior

—Less active and smaller prefrontal cortex areas

—Genetic Influences

—Heredity influences the neural system’s sensitivity to aggressive cues


Frustration-Aggression Theory

Theory that frustration triggers a readiness to aggress

—Frustration- —Blocking of goal-directed behavior



—Redirect hostilities to safer targets

Ex. —Road rage

or We don’t aggress toward our boss, we aggress toward a safer target like our family


Relative Deprivation

Perception that one is less well off than others with whom one compares oneself

—Explains why happiness tends to be lower and crime rates higher in communities and nations with large income inequality


Explain and give an example of how aggression can be a learned social behavior

—Rewards of aggression

—Through experience and by observing others, we learn that aggression often pays


—Aggressive role-models

—Social learning theory ( Bandura )

—We learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished

—Family- Abused children are 4 times more likely to become criminals or abusive parents

—Culture- Values and images portrayed in the social environment outside the home


What are the influences that tend to increase aggression?

—Physical pain

—Psychological pain


—Attacks: Includes insults


What are the effects of watching a lot of violent television?

Television’s effects on behavior

—Correlating TV viewing and behavior

—Frequent result of correlating children’s TV viewing with aggressiveness is the more violent the content the more aggressive the child

—Both immediate and long-term effects

— Why does TV viewing affect behavior?

—The arousal that it produces

—Viewing violence disinhibits (lowers inhibitions)

—Media portrayals evoke imitation

—Television’s effects on thinking


—Extinguishes emotional response by watching it over and over

—Social scripts

—Culturally provided mental instructions for how to act in various situations (e.g., conflict)

—Altered perceptions

—Media portrayals shape perceptions of reality

—Cognitive priming

—Media portrayals prime thinking

—More likely to interpret others’ behaviors with hostile intent

—Time drain


Playing violent videogames?

—Games are becoming more violent and sometimes include: Carjacking, —Shooting, —Sex, Murder

—Games that are rated “M” for mature are often marketed to those younger

—Researchers are investigating the effects of many hours of actively rehearsing violence through enacting the attacking and killing of people

—Effects of the games kids play

—Increases aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors

—Decreases empathy for others and helping others

—Desensitized to violence


What affect does a group have on aggression

—Can amplify aggressive reactions partly by diffusing responsibility

—Increases with distance (advise someone else to deliver the attack) and number (groups magnify aggressive tendencies)


Catharsis Hypothesis

Its better for me to shoot someone in a videogame then actually act aggressively…nope, not true because aggression breeds aggression, cruelty towards others breeds cruelty towards others.

Is it supported?

—Contrary to the catharsis hypothesis, expressing aggression by catharsis tends to breed further aggression, not reduce it


What is the most important factor leading to friendship/attraction?

Proximity- Geographical nearness. Proximity (more precisely, "functional distance") powerfully predicts liking.


Mere Exposure Effect

—Tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rated more positively after the rater has been repeatedly exposed to them

—Exposure without awareness leads to liking

—Familiarity increases liking


Matching Phenomenon

—Tendency for men and women to choose as partners those who are a “good match” in attractiveness and other traits

—(We tend to end up with someone who is very similar to ourselves…)


Physical Attractiveness Stereotype

—Presumption that physically attractive people possess other socially desirable traits as well

—Attractiveness mostly affects First impressions

—Is the "Beautiful is Good" stereotype accurate?

—Attractive people are valued and favoured, and so many develop more social self-confidence

—Self-fulfilling prophecy


"The Perfect Average"

—Computer-averaged faces more appealing over the real faces

—Easy for brain to process and categorize


The Contrast Effect

Feeling unattractive after looking at magazines

—Social Comparison- depends on your standards

Ex. A person will appear more or less attractive than that person does in isolation when immediately preceded by, or simultaneously compared to, respectively, a less or more attractive person.


What influences our perception of someone as attractive?

—We see likable people as attractive

—Discovering someone’s similarity to ourselves results in perceiving that person as more attractive

—The more we love someone, the more attractive they are (relative to others of the same sex)



Does it apply to most relationships?

—Popularly supposed tendency, in a relationship between two people, for each to complete what is missing in the other

—Sometimes, but not the norm

—Perception of like minds is so important in attraction!



—Use of strategies, such as flattery, by which people seek to gain another’s favor


Reward Theory of Attraction

How can a couple use it to strengthen their relationship?

—Theory that we like those whose behavior is rewarding to us or whom we associate with rewarding events

Needs to associate each other person with positive things. Doing rewarding things things together


Passionate Love

—Emotional, exciting, and intense

—Expressed physically


Companionate Love

—Affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined

—Occurs after passionate love fades


Two-Factor Theory of Emotion

in the context of romantic love

—Suggests that in a romantic context, arousal from any source, even painful experiences, can be steered into passion


What do we know about love, marriages, and divorce in individualistic and collectivist cultures?

Individualistic cultures...passionate love comes first and then that leads to marriage

Men: Physical and playful

Women: Friendship and intimacy

When passionate love simmers down

Enduring love

Grows out of shared values

Bad...when couple thinks that passion needs to be the driving force of their relationship...because passionate love fluctuates...companionate love is when really drives and is the reality...cant always have passionate love but people have that expectation from the media.

Divorce rates have increased world wide

—Individualistic cultures have more divorce than do communal cultures


What are the infant's reactions to the strange situation for the securely attached infant? How does this affect future relationships?

—Secure attachment

—Rooted in trust and marked by intimacy

Took infant and mom...observed infants behavior when mom left room and then when she came back into room

Secure-explore room, be clearly distressed when she left (normal distress response when she left), then easily consoled when mother came back

This mother child relationship is a template for other relationships



Condition in which the outcomes people receive from a relationship are proportional to what they contribute to it

—Long-term equity

—As people observe their partners being self-giving, their sense of trust grows

—Happily married people don’t tend to keep score of what they are giving and getting

—Perceived equity and satisfaction

—Changes with relationship (e.g., martial satisfaction dips with young children)


Disclosure Reciprocity

—Tendency for one person’s intimacy or self-disclosure to match that of a conversational partner

—Disclosure begets disclosure


Social Exchange Theory

Theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one’s rewards and minimize one’s costs


Reduce guilt (feel-bad/do-good), lower own distress, feel better about self

Effect occurs only with people whose attention is on others


Recognition, status, achievement


Reciprocity Norm

Expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them

Helps define the social capital


Social Responsibility Norm

Expectation that people will help those needing help

Behavior tied to attributions (whether people “deserve” help)


Why do we help others according to evolutionary psychology?

Genetic relatedness predicts helping

Kin selection (devotion to kin)

Idea that evolution has selected altruism toward one’s close relatives to enhance the survival of mutually shared genes

More likely to help people we associate with our “in-group”

Children before the old, neighbors before strangers


Social Capital

with a community

The mutual support and cooperation enabled by a social network

Supportive connections, information flow, trust, and cooperative actions—that keep a community healthy


Genuine Altruism

Willingness to help others with no offered or expected return

Our willingness to help is influenced by self-serving and selfless considerations


Bystander Effect

Finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders


Under what situations are we more likely to help? To increase bystander intervention?

When we will help:

Helping When Someone Else Does

Less Time Pressured

Similarity: We tend to help those whom we perceive as being similar to us

Who will help:

Personality Traits: Positive emotionality, Empathy, Self-efficacy

Gender: Depend on the situation but Men tend to help in dangerous situations (help women) and Women tend to help as a volunteer. (help children)

Religious Faith (correlation between faith engagement and volunteering)

Increasing Bystander Interverntion:

Reduce Ambiguity and Anonymity, Increase Responsibility

Personalizing bystanders (potency of personal influence)

Personal request

Eye contact

Stating one’s name

Anticipation of interaction


How can we increase helping behavior in general?

Guilt and Concern for Self-Image

Socializing Altruism

Teaching Moral Inclusion...not exclusion

Modeling altruism

Learning about altruism

Learning by doing


Overjustification Effect

How can it deter volunteering?

Result of bribing people to do what they already like doing; they may then see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing


Door-In-The-Face Technique

Strategy for gaining a concession

After someone first turns down a large request, the same requester counteroffers with a more reasonable request

Ex. “Ok, if you wont do that…would you at least do this small favor….?”

or “Even a penny will help.”


Moral Exclusion

Perception of certain individuals or groups as outside the boundary within which one applies moral values and rules of fairness


Trajedy of the Commons

The "commons" is any shared resource, including air, water, energy sources, and food supplies. The tragedy occurs when individuals consume more than their share, with the cost of their doing so dispersed among all, causing the ultimate collapse--the tragedy--of the commons.

Ex. Cookie Jar