Bio 101 - Chapter 6

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1

Metabolic pathway

a specific molecule is altered in a series of defined steps, resulting in a product

2

Catabolic pathways

release energy by degrating complex molecules to simple

3

Anabolic pathways

require energy to build things

4

1st law of thermodynamics

the amount of energy in the universe is constant. Matter can't be created nor destroyed

5

2nd law of thermodynamics

every energy transfer increases entropy in the universe. Enthropy or randomness. Less organized

6

Thermodynamics

heat and evergy

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Catabolic process

cell releases free energy in a series of reactions

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Anabolic process

cell requires free energy by pumping in

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Exergonic

release of energy

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Endergonic

requirement of energy

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Catalyst

a chemical agent that speeds up a reaction

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Enzyme

a catalyst. Ex: Hemoglobin

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Activation energy

the initial investment of energy for a starting reaction

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Transition state

free energy at it's highest points which makes molecules more unstable for the reaction

15

Induced fit

enzyme changes shape to fit substrate

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Cofactors

non-protein helpers for many enzymes. They bind perminately or reversibly to the enzyme. Ex: Copper, Zinc and Iron

17

Coenzymes

Organic cofactors. Ex: Vitamins

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Competitive inhibitors

reduce the productivity of enzymes by blocking substrates from entering active sites. Don't react with the enzyme

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Noncompetitive inhibitors

do not bind to the active site of the enzyme.

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Multimeric enzyme

enzyme with quatenery structure

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Allosteric regulation

other site activator or inhibitor. There is a balance between the 2. Noncompetitive

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Allosteric activator

stabilizes active form of enzyme (turns it on)

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Allosteric inhibitor

stabilizes inactive form of enzyme (turn off)

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Coopertivity

takes the inactive enzyme that binds with a substrate to make it active. Ex: Hemoglobin (it gives more oxygen to harder working muscles)

25

Threonine

amino acid that binds to an enzyme to make an end product isoleucine (on switch)

26

Isoleucine

amino acid that prevents threonine from binding to the enzyme (off switch)

27

Allosteric enzyme

the first enzyme that threonine binds to to start the reaction