Automobile manufacturer whose assembly line techniques of production revolutionized production in modern economy. Efficiencies of large scale production, assembled by semi-skilled workers making goof pay brought success to owners and prosperity to workers. Car production became most important segment of U.S. economy.
Jamaican-born leader of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), a mass-based group of poor and middle-class blacks who undertook scheme to transport blacks--voluntarily "back to Africa on black-owned North Star Line ships. Based on belief that white racism was unreformable. Garvey later arrested by IRS for tax evasion and deported to Jamaica.
Prolific African American poet and writer who popularized the folk culture of blacks in works of classic beauty.
Zora Neale Hurston
Florida born African American novelists best known for "Their Eyes Were Watching God," about a self-sufficient community of rural Florida blacks, written in the vernacular and celebrating their affirmative life spirit even in the face of white oppression and bigotry.
First person to successfully fly solo across the Atlantic in 1924. Became world wide hero and celebrity afterwards.
American writer, part of the expatriate "lost generation" living in Paris after WW I. Best known for his spare language and simple style. Emphasized importance of authentic courage and male virility.
F. Scott Fitzgerald
American writer, also part of the "lost generation" whose stories of flappers and bootleggers during the Twenties were very popular. Most famous for his short novel, "The Great Gatsby," about a romantic bootlegger who tried to marry his wartime sweetheart, and met tragedy instead.
Sacco and Vanzetti
Couple of Italian American grocers (and anarchists) who were charged with the murder and robbery of a Massachusetts bank. Probably framed by the police and the courts, their case became an international cause of injustice. Executed in 1926.
Infamous 1924 trial in Dayton TN based on illegal teaching of Darwin in a high school biology class. Resulting trial brought world attention. Opposing sides were represented by Charles Darrow for the defense of the high school, teacher and William Jennings Bryan for the prosecution. The world regarded it as a classic confrontation of small town bigotry and ignorance against the forces of modern science and big city sophistication.
Progressive Republican administrator who directed the Food Administration in WW I and helped feed the starving children of Europe after the war, and ran the Department of Commerce under Harding and Coolidge. Elected president in 1928 on promise to "put a chicken in every pot." Presided over the 1929 Stock Market crash and the 1931 Bank Failure and the beginning of the Great Depression. Attempted to address the economic crisis with voluntary methods, but failed. Unfairly blamed for indifference to suffering caused by economic collapse.
Eight African American young men falsely accused and convicted of rape by a white Alabama woman afraid to confess her pregnancy (by a white father to whom she was nit married). Communist Party took up their defense and made the trial and and case an international sensation of racial prejudice and injustice.
Model T Ford
The most popular, economical, and reliable car Ford produced. Came only in black and it was easy to fix. Ford brought the price of cars down to the level that middle class working people could afford to buy them.
Teapot Dome Scandal
Illegal sale of oil rights to Wyoming land by crony of Harding brought scandal to his administration.
Practice of businesses providing welfare-like services to employees: recreation, profit-sharing,health benefits, etc. Welfare capitalism, or industrial paternalism, was centered in industries that employed skilled labor and peaked in the mid-20th century. Usually an attempt to convince workers they didn't need to join a union to improve their condition.
Early attempt to provide credit for consumers unable to afford full price of item. Used to finance big ticket items like cars and furniture. Beginning of credit-based consumer economy where impulse buying of non-necessities became the norm for Americans.
Long standing efforts to prohibit both the sale and the consumption of alcohol finally paid off during WW I. Social experiment at controlling personal habits failed to halt sale, though consumption rates did decline for most people. Illegal sales encouraged criminal gangs to provide liquor and made ordinary people into criminals.
As educational and working opportunities opened up for women in the teens and twenties, an image of a newly independent, free-spirited woman, less focused on getting married and raising a family became popular. Women were encouraged to pursue pleasure
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
Amendment first proposed by Alice Paul to grant women equal rights with men. Failed to pass in 1920s and 1970s.
A young woman, especially one in the 1920s who showed disdain for conventional dress and behavior. Represented "new woman" ideal of liberated woman. she was defined as "the ultra-modern, young girl, full of pep and life, beautiful (naturally or artificially), blasé, imitative, and intelligent to a degree who is about to bloom into the period of womanhood and believes that her sex has been and will continue to be, emancipated to a level higher than most mortals have been able to attain
New Negro is a term popularized during the Harlem Renaissance implying a more outspoken advocacy of dignity and a refusal to submit quietly to the practices and laws of Jim Crow racial segregation. The term "New Negro" was made popular by Alain Locke.
A blossoming ( 1918-37) of African American culture, particularly in the creative arts, centred in Harlem in New York City. As a literary movement, it laid the groundwork for all later African American literature and had a significant impact on black literature and consciousness worldwide. Its leading literary figures included James Weldon Johnson, Claude McKay, Countee Cullen, Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Alain Locke (1886-1954). Their work both fed and took inspiration from the creative and commercial growth of jazz and a concurrent burgeoning of work by black visual artists. Central to the movement were efforts to explore all aspects of the African American experience and to reconceptualize the Negro independent of white stereotypes.
Group of U.S. writers who came of age during World War I and established their reputations in the 1920s; more broadly, the entire postWorld War I American generation. The term was coined by Gertrude Stein in a remark to Ernest Hemingway. The writers considered themselves lost because their inherited values could not operate in the postwar world and they felt spiritually alienated from a country they considered hopelessly provincial and emotionally barren. The term embraces Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Dos Passos, E.E. Cummings, Archibald MacLeish, and Hart Crane, among others.
Crash of 1929
Economic event in the U.S. that precipitated the Great Depression. The U.S. stock market expanded rapidly in the late 1920s and reached a peak in August 1929, when prices began to decline while speculation increased. On October 18 the stock market began to fall precipitously. On the first day of real panic, October 24, known as Black Thursday, a record 12,894,650 shares were traded. Banks and investment companies bought large blocks of stock to stem the panic, but on October 29, Black Tuesday, 16 million shares were traded and prices collapsed. The crash began a 10-year economic slump that affected all the Western industrialized countries.
Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act, formally United States Tariff Act of 1930, also called Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act, U.S. legislation (June 17, 1930) that raised import duties to protect American businesses and farmers, adding considerable strain to the international economic climate of the Great Depression.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC), U.S. government agency established by Congress on January 22, 1932, to provide financial aid to railroads, financial institutions, and business corporations. With the passage of the Emergency Relief Act in July 1932, its scope was broadened to include aid to agriculture and financing for state and local public works.
The RFC made little use of its powers under the Herbert Hoover administration but was more vigorously utilized during the New Deal years and contributed greatly to the recovery effort.
Herbert Hoover's progressive idea that corporations should voluntarily "associate" to regulate production and address social problems. This voluntary approach did not work during economic crises like the Depression.