Chapter 22

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George Creel

Public relations executive who headed the CPI. "Sold" the war to Americans through media blitz of advertising.


Henry Cabot Lodge

Massachusetts Senator (Republican) who opposed Wilson's proposal for a League of Nations b/c he believed it would require the U.S. to sacrifice its sovereignty when the League would vote to militarily discipline a violating member.


Calvin Coolidge

"Keep Cool with Cal" was the campaign slogan for the Republican president who succeeded to office when Harding dies. Said "The business of America was business." And, "Business is a holy temple at which we worship." Presided over the economic boom of the Roaring Twenties. "I do not choose to run," he said in 1928. And he did't.


Mitchell Palmer

Attorney-General for Wilson. Led the round up of dissenters and aliens in 1919 known as the "Red Scare."--"Palmer Raids" that led to deportation of thousands of "undesirables" and suspected anarchists and socialists like Emma Goldman, who was forced to return to Russia.


Emma Goldman

Radical socialist who was deported to Russia after WW I. Pacifist and critic of Wilson's war.


Warren Harding

Ohio's last president. Republican whose campaign slogan in 1920 was his call for a "return to normalcy." Administration was notorious for its corruption--the "Ohio Boys" who gathered in the White House for poker and the Teapot Dome Scandal, which involved the corrupt sale of oil lands in Wyoming.


American Expeditionary Force (AEF)

Term used to describe the soldiers the U.S. sent to France in WW I.



German submarines, whose sinking of Allied and American ships finally led to U.S. declaration of war in April 1917.



British ocean liner carrying American passengers and hidden war supplies sunk by German U-boats in 1915. Wilson did not regard this as an act of war, though many in the U.S. did (TR) and criticized Wilson for not putting up more of a fight against Germany.


Zimmerman Telegram

Intercepted telegram from German war office to its ambassador in Mexico outlining offer to Mexico to restore territory lost to U.S. if it distracted the U.S. and prevented or delayed U.S. declaration of war against Germany. Public outrage when Wilson revealed it in 1917 helped convince U.S. to support declaration of war against Germany.


Selective Service Board

Organized draft of American soldiers in WW I. Drafted millions of young men through lottery system. Even more voluntarily enlisted.


War Industries Board

Wilson appointed financial magnate Barnard Baruch to oversee all industrial production to support army and war effort. Massive expansion of federal government's role in American economic life. Later, helped provide model for New Deal.


18th Amendment

Prohibition Amendment. Passed as "progressive measure" against drunkenness and to conserve food resources for the war effort. Only amendment to be repealed (1933).


19th Amendment

Women finally win the right to vote--based on their efforts to help in WW I and desire of white males to offset effect of non-WASP male voters.


Committee on Public Information

Government agency charged with task of convincing Americans to support WW I. Used all the techniques of media-based modern advertising to "sell" war as a consumer product.


Sedition Act

Congress passed law in 1917 making it a crime to even criticize U.S. war effort as subversion. Government used this as a license to imprison many critics of the war, most famously Socialist presidential candidate, Eugene V. Debs.


Fourteen Points

Wilson issued these peace principles in 1917 as the basis for negotiations. Highly idealistic principles that were later rejected at Versailles by France and England out for revenge and permanent victory over Germany. Led to unsustainable division of Europe and Middle East based on self-determination of language-based nations.


League of Nations

Wilson's proposal to establish a world legislative body with powers to settle disputes between nations before war broke out. Ultimately, the U.S, refused to ratify this treaty and the U.S. never joined.


Paris Peace Conference

Allies and defeated Central Powers met in Paris in 1919 to hammer out new boundaries in Europe and Middle East and terms of Germany's surrender.


Versailles Treaty

Treaty that emerged from Paris Peace Conference. Its harsh terms of defeat for Germany--admitting war guilt and paying very large reparations to Allies as a consequence of having "started the war" planted the seeds to Germany's economic collapse and resentful anger that, ultimately, led to WW II and Hitler.


1919 Strikes

Prevented from striking during WW I, unions started waging massive strikes against capitalist owners in 1919; some, even against public, like the notorious Boston Police Strike. Worried middle class public that working class was getting out of hand and that "anarchists and revolutionaries" were taking over the country.


Red Scare

U.S. government, fearful of radical political activity, strikes, and violence, began to round up undesirables and deport them back to European country of origin or to throw them in jail, like Debs.


Great Migration

Labor shortages in northern factories led to millions of African Americans leaving the rural south to seek jobs in the industrialized north and midwest. Created serious racial tension and riots in cities between whites and blacks.


League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC)

First organized in Texas and California to prevent abuses of Hispanic civil rights.