Final PSC 101 Flash Cards

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What does interest group mean?
What is pluralism?
Pluralist assume?

Organizations that seek to influence gov't decisions.
The theory that all groups are well represented an no single interests controls gov't decisions.
Pluralists assumed that groups & group struggle were the essence of politics, not one interest group solely has power.


What is policy agenda?
What is the disturbance theory?
Free Rider Problem?

The set of issues under consideration by policy makers.
The theory that when social. political, and economic relationships change, individuals form groups in response.
A barrier to collective action because ppl can reap the benefits of group efforts w/out participating. (ex.: sit back and let others do all the work)


What have political scientist identified as ways to overcome the collective action problem?

A: Selective benefits provided to group members, typically material or monetary, but also social or ideological
B: Individual entrepreneurship, which can motivate individuals to get involved in groups activities and stay involved
C: patronage from outsiders who support the groups mission


What his the ultimate goal of interest groups?
What is the political action committee?

Ultimate goal of interest groups is to shape the public policy in ways consistent w/ group of interests values, and beliefs.
PAC: Political Action Committee: a group that collects money from individuals and makes donations to political parties and candidates.


527 Committee?

An indépendant non party group that raises and spends money on political activities.


In the executive branch who gets lobbied the most?

Executive branch agencies


What was the ultimate outcome about PAC contributions and does it affect votes?

Most research finds that PAC contributions do not buy the votes of their legislators.


Every two years and the elections of the house of representatives, how many of those elections are true races?

Only about 2 dozen.


How many members in the house of representatives, how often are they voted in, and how many ppl do they represent?

Members: 435
Often voted in: Every 2 yrs
How many represent: 600,000 voters


How often are senators voted in? How many are there?

Often voted in: 6 years
How many: 100 senators


What are the responsibilities that each house of congress has? What are the different responsibilities btwn the senate and house?

Both: oversee the bureaucracy, declare war, regulating interstate commerce, raising and supporting armies, and making laws.
Senate: ratify foreign treaties, approving presidential appointments to the federal judiciary and executive branch.
House of Rep: start impeachment process if needed


"House of Representatives" what is the main focus for congressmen?

Getting re-elected.


What is a standing committee, select committee, and joint committee?

Standing committee: Permanent committee with a well defined, relatively fixed policy jurisdiction that develops , writes, & updates important legislation.
Select committee: a temporary committee created to serve a specific purpose
Joint committee: a committee made up of members of both chambers of congress to conduct a special investigation or study.


What is a party caucus, and a party conference? Who elects the speaker of the house?

Party Caucus: the gathering of all democratic members of the house or senate
Party conference: the gathering of all republican members of the house or senate
Who elects the speaker of house: which ever party holds the most seats


What is a whip?

designated members of congress who deliver messages from the party leaders, keep track of members votes, and encourage members to stand together on key issues.


What is an open rule? Closed rule?

Open rule: the terms and conditions applied to a particular bill that allow members of congress to make a wide range of amendment to it
Closed rule: the terms and conditions applied to a particular bill that restrict the type of amendments that can be made to it.


What is filibuster and a cloture?

Fillbuster: va procédure by which senators delay or prevent action on a bill by making long speeches and engaging in unlimited debate
Cloture: a mechanism by which 60 or more senators can end a filibuster and cut off debate


What is the double A "authorization and appropriations"?

Authorization: the granting of legal authority to operate federal programs and agencies.
Appropriations: the granting of funds to operate authorized federal programs and agencies.


What is a continuing resolution?

funds to keep programs up and running when regular appropriations have not been approved by the end of the fiscal year