Terms for 2nd exam

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 6 years ago by Barn_Heineken9
218 views
Bio 162
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Prokaryotes

5,000 species known

Two domains: Bacteria and Archaea

diameter is 1-5 um compared to 10-100um in eukaryotic cells

2

Most prokayotes are.... and some form.... common shapes?

Unicellular, true colonies, Cocci Bacilli Spirilli

3

Bacteria's cell wall

Keep shape, protection, prevents bursting- Peptidoglycan is a polymer of modified sugars cross-linked by short polypeptides,

walls of archaea lack peptidoglycan

4

Gram-positive

violent-blue/purple, similar cell walls, with large amounts of peptidoglycans

5

Gram-negative

Stains pink, more complex cell walls and less peptidoglycan, more threatening

6

capsule

polysaccharide or protein layer that covers many prokaryotes

7

Fimbriae (attachment pili)

allow them to stick to their substrate or other individuals in a colony

8

Sex pili

longer than fimbriae and allow prokaryotes to exchange DNA

9

Flagella

concentrated at one or both ends, differ in structure and function from those of the eukaryotes

10

Taxis

movement toward or away from a stimulus, positive or negative, contains Chemotaxis (chemical), Phototaxis (Light), and Electrotaxis (Electric)

11

Prokaryotes Lack...?

True Nucleus-only have a nucleoid region

Membrane bound organelles

12

In prokaryotes the unfolded regions of the plasma membrane are for:

cellular respiration

photosynthesis

13

prokaryote DNA is....

smaller, simple single chromosome, in nuclei region, double stranded DNA, and ring shaped

14

Plasmids

have smaller rings of DNA which provide resistance to anti-biotics and replicate independently of the chromosome, transferred between partners (conjugation).

15

Prokaryotic ribosomes are...

slightly smaller

different than eukaryotic

16

Selective antibiotics

block protein synthesis in prokaryotes

Tetracycline and Erythromycin- medication to battle prokaryotes

17

Prokaryotes only reproduce.. ...and through ...

asexually

binary fission- every 3 hrs

18

endospores

remain viable in harsh conditions for centuries; extremely stable- can survive boiling, can be killed by autoclaving

19

Autotrophs

carbon source= CO2 / from air

-Photoautotrophs

-Chemoautotrophs

20

Heterotrophs

carbon source= organics/ form food (humans)

-Photoheterothrophs

-Chemoheterotrophs (most prokaryotes)

-Saprobes- breakdown

-Parasites

21

Obligate aerobes

(humans) require oxygen

22

Facultative anearobes

will use oxygen if it is available, not required

23

Obligate anearobes

(alc) Posioned by oxygen, use anearobic respiration or fermentation

24

Symbiotic relationships- commensalism

one benefits/one unaffected

25

Symbiotic relationship- Parasitism

one benefits/ one harmed

26

Symbiotic relationship- Mutualism

both benefit form relationship

27

Escherichia coli

ginea pig of microbiology, biochemistry, and gentetics

28

bioremediation

organisms to remove pollutants in the air, water, and soil

29

Archaea are...extremophiles

lovers of extreme environments

30

Mehtanogens

get energy form using CO2 to oxidize H2/ generating CH4 as methane gas

31

Extreme halophiles

great salt lake, dead sea

32

Extreme thermophiles

hot environments, optimum 60 degrees - 80