BIO 1106 Exam 2

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1

Phylum Hepaticophyta

Marchantia

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HEPATICOPHYTA LIFE CYCLE (S)
(LIVERWORT)

Sexual Reproduction

  • Marchantia is dioecious
    • separate male and female plants
  • each plant has stalks (m and f) that produce the gametes
    • Archegoniophores - female stalks bearing archegonia
      • contains neck and venter, contains egg
    • Antheridiophores - male stalks bearing antheridia
      • flagellated sperm
  • rain droplets wash the sperm from antheridia, towards the egg in the venter
  • grows into sporophyte plant
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HEPATICOPHYTA LIFE CYCLE (A)
(LIVERWORT)

Hepaticophyta

  • gametophyte is dominant phase
  • haploid form=most conspicuous

Asexual Reproduction

  • through fragmentation
  • Gemmae cups on surface of thalli
  • Gemmae inside the cups are splashed out by falling rain droplets (idk about you guys but thats really poetic)
  • if good enviro, then it develops into new gametophyte plant

Important Parts

  • capsule, seta, elaters
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Marchantia

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Marchantia Thallus

(Asexual reproduction)

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Gemmae cup

Gemmae inside the cups are splashed out by falling rain droplets.

Grows into gametophyte plat

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Marchantia Antheridiospore

(M)

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flagellated sperm

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Antheridium

(M)

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flagellated sperm

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Marchantia Archegoniophores

(F)

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contains neck and venter, contains egg

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Archegonium

(F)

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contains neck and venter, contains egg

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Marchantia sporophyte

(Sexual Reproduction)

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Elators: purple lines

Spores: pink dots

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Dioecious

(Sexual Reproduction)

Has both male and female reproductive organs in separate individuals.

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BRYOPHYTE LIFE CYCLE

(MOSS)

Life Cycle

  • alternation of gen.
    • gametophyte is dominant phase
  • Multicellular Sex Organs
    • Antheridia - male organs that produce sperm.
      • Sperm: swimmy, needs water to swim to the eggs
    • Archegonia - female organs
      • eggs... they’re just cool
  • Reproduction
    • fertilized eggs are zygotes
    • zygotes => archegonium which produces sporophyte
    • sporophyte still cling to/nutritionally dependent on gametophyte
    • sporophyte=> meiosis=> haploid spores
    • haploid spores => gametophytes
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BRYOPHYTA

Asexual Reproduction

  • fragmentation
  • but they don’t have gemmae cups

Sexual Reproduction

  • Dioecious
  • Archegonia and Antheridia are borne either on tips of the erect gametophyte stalks, or as lateral branches on the stalks
    • apex of female stalk is a cluster of leaves, with archegonia inside
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Phylum Bryophyta

(Moss)

Polytrichum
Sphagnum

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Polytrichum

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Polytrichum

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Sphagnum

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Sporophyte VS Gametophyte

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  • capsule- contains haploid spores from meiosis
  • calyptra - covers capsule, falls off when capsule matures
  • seta - the stalks on the plant
  • operculum- hairlike teeth line the opening. teeth help control release of spores from capsule. in wet weather, the bend inwards and prevent release. in dry weather, the bend out and facilitate release
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Moss Antheridial Head

(M)

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Moss Archegonial head

(F)

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Moss Capsule

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Pterophyta

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Ferns:

Psilotem

Equistrium

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FERN REPRODUCTION

Fern Reproduction

  • fern spores germinate and form protonema
  • further divisions produce an independent, heart-shaped prothallium(haploid, gametophyte )
  • rhizoids and m/f rep structures occur on the underside of prothallium
    • incest does not happen because they mate at diff times
  • sperm from antheridia swim to archegonia and form a zygote. zygote is dependent on the gametophyte. turns into sporophyte
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Fern Prothallium

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Haploid Gametophyte

Archegonia (Dark circles)

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Fern Sori

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Underside of fern frond.

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Fern Indusium

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Psilotum Sporangium

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Equisetum Cross section

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Mature Strobilus

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Phylum Lycophyta

Club mosses

Lycopodium

Selaginella

Isoetes

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Lycopodium

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Lycopodium sporangia

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Selaginella

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Isoetes

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Gymnosperms

First group of plants to protect their developing embryos in nutrient containing seeds

First to make the evolutionary transition from swimming sperm to pollen enclosed sperm

Seeds called cones

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Gymnosperms

  • Cycadophyta
  • Ginkgophyta
  • Coniferophyta
  • Gnetophyta
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Phylum Cycadophyta

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Cycads.

Heterosporous vascular seed plants. Sperm flagellated. Palmlike plants pinnate leaves.

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Phylum Ginkgophyta

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Ginkgo

Heterosporous vascular seed. Sperm flagellated. Deciduous tree with fan shaped leaves. Does not bear cones

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Phylum Coniferophyta

Conifers.(Pines, spruces, firs, yews, redwoods)

Heterosporous seed plants. Sperm not motile,needle like leaves.

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Various seed cones

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Cone maturation

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Various seeds

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Pine Two Needle Leaf

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Pine Staminate Cone

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Pine Mature Pollen

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Pine Young Ovulate Cone

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Pine Ovule

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Pine Mature Embryo

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Gnetophyta

Gnetophytes: Welwitschia

Heterosporous vascular seed plants. Sperm not motile. Has vessels

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Angiosperms, anthophyta

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Flowering plants

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Parts of a flower

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Anthrophyta Sex

  • After the development of microgametophytes with sperm and a megagametophyte with an egg sexual reproduction in angiosperms occurs as follows:
    • Pollination occurs when pollen is transferred to the stigma
    • Pollen grain germinates and pollen tube grows through stigma to the ovary
    • One sperm fuses with egg to form diploid zygote, and the other sperm fuses with the two polar nuclei to form a triploid nucleus ( double fertilization )
    • The zygote develops into an embryo while the triple fused nucleus forms the triploid endosperm that will provide food for the embryo
    • The integuments of the ovule form the seed coat and the fruit develops from the ovary
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Lilium Anther

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Stages of megasporogensis

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1 Large megasporocyte

Four nuclei stage

8 nuclei stage

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Seed and Embryo Development

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Globular

Heart

Torpedo

Mature