A&P2 exam 1

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1

Formed Elements of Blood

  • Erythrocytes = RBC
  • Leukocytes = WBC
  • Platelets
2

Plasma

  • 92% Water
  • Salts (electolytes)
  • Plasma (dissolved) proteins
  • transports nutrients and waste
3

neutrophils

  • 60% suspended in blood
  • multilobed nucleus
  • granulated
  • function - phagocytize bacteria
4

Eosinophils

  1. 3-5% suspended in blood
  2. bilobed nucleus
  3. granules - red cytoplasmic
  4. functions: worms (parasites), antigen-antibody complexes, inflammatory and allergies
5

Basophils

  • 1% suspended in blood
  • lobed nucleus
  • granules- large blue purple cytoplasm
  • Function: release histamine, contain heparin
6

Lymphocytes

  • 30% suspended in blood
  • spherical or indented nucleus
  • granules - none
  • functions: mount immune response by direct cell attack or by anitbodies
7

monocytes

  • 5% suspended in blood
  • u or kidney shaped nucleus
  • granules - none
  • function: phagocytosis (develop into macrophages in tissue
8

What is the hematocrit concept?

Ratio of red blood cells to the total volume of blood

9

How to interpret blood type results

if there is agglutination (clumping) it is positive for that blood type or the RH

10

What is the universal blood donor?

O-

11

What is the universal acceptor of blood?

AB+

12

ID Leukocytes

Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas

  • nuetrophils
  • lymphocytes
  • monocytes
  • eosinophils
  • basophils
13

Leukocyte Granulocytes

posses granules

  • neutrophils
  • eosinophils
  • basophilos
14

Leukocyte agranulocytes

Lack granules

  • lymphocytes
  • monocytes
15

what is the P wave of an EKG?

depolarization of the right and left atria

blood forced from atria to ventricle

16

what is the QRS complex of the EKG?

depolarization of the right and left ventricle

normally the ventricles are activated simultaneously

all valves are closed with ventricular depolarization

17

What is the ST-T wave of an EKG

ventricular repolarization

18

what is the U wave of an EKG?

probably represents after depolarization in the ventricles, origin for this wave is not clear

19

What is the PR interval of an EKG?

time interval from onset of atrial depolarization (P wave) to onset of ventricular depolarization (QRS complex)

20

What is the QRS durationl of an EKG?

duration of ventricular muscle depolarization

21

What is the QT interval of an EKG?

duration of ventricular depolarization and repolarization.

22

What is the RR interval of an EKG

duration of ventricular cardiac cycle

an indicator of ventricular rate

23

What is PP interval of an EKG?

duration of atrial cylce

indicator of atrial rate

24

what is systolic pressure?

maximum pressure against the artery

measured in mmhg

25

what is diastolic pressure?

minimum pressure against the artery

measured in mmhg

26

What is Pulse pressure?

PP= systolic - diastolic

use it to find mean arterial pressure

27

What is Mean arterial pressure?

MAP = Diastolic + 1/3 PP

this tells you if your organs are all getting enough blood

28

basics of the Wigger diagram

...

29

where can pulses be felt in the body?

  • temporal artery
  • facial artery
  • carotid artery
  • brachial artery
  • radial artery
  • femoral artery
  • popliteal artery
  • pasterior tibial artery
  • dorsalis pedis artery
30

what 3 vessels drain into the right atrium?

superior and inferior vena cava and the coronary sinus