Human Anatomy Chapter 9- Joints

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1

Synarthrosis

immovable (ex..Sutures)

2

Amphiarthrosis

slightly movable (ex..between adjacent vertebrae)

3

Diarthrosis

movable, to varying degrees; most obvious to the eye (ex..synovial joints)

4

Fibrous joints

Ex.. syndesmosis, sutures, gomphosis

5

cartilaginous joints

Ex.. synchondrosis, symphysis

6

Synovial Joints

joint capsule of fibrous C.T. and joined with periosteum and ligaments

7

synovial membrane

secretes synovial fluid into the cavity between the bones of joint, lines the cavity except where there is articular cartilage

8

joint cavity

space between the bones, limited by the joint capsule

9

Articular Cartilage

caps the ends of the bones forming the joint

10

Bursa

C.T. pocket, lined with a synovial membrane and filled with synovial fluid; found between tendon or ligament and other tissues such as bone to reduce friction

11

tendon sheath

flattened bursa, tubular, surrounding a tendon

12

planar(gliding)

least movable; two flattened surfaces (e.g., sternoclavicular, between articular processes of vertebrae, between carpals/tarsals)

13

hinge

movement in one plane (e.g., elbow, knee, between phalanges)

14

pivot

rotation around a central axis (e.g., atlas/axis joint, radius head with the radial notch of the ulna)

15

Condyloid (ellipsoid)

movement in two planes (e.g., between radius and carpals, tibia and tarsals, between metacarpals/metatarsals and phalanges)

16

saddle

wide range of movement (e.g., carpometacarpal joint of the thumb)

17

ball-and-socket

all planes and rotations (e.g., hip joint - head of femur and acetabulum/ and shoulder joint - head of humerus and glenoid fossa)

18

flexion

decreases the angle of the joint as bending at the elbow, knee, toes, fingers, hip with the thigh forward, head bent forward

19

extension

increases the angle to anatomical position in most cases as straightening at the joints above; hyperextension — extending past anatomical position as head bent backward, thigh extended posteriorly

20

dorsiflexion

flexing the ankle by lifting the sole upward (extending the toes)

21

plantarflexion

flexing the sole by lifting the heel upward

22

abduction

movement away from the midline as lifting the arm/leg out to the side, directing the fingers in anatomical position away from the body, spreading the fingers

23

adduction

movement toward the midline of the parts above

24

rotation

pivot joints, including supination/pronation (palm forward/palm back)

25

circumduction

all movements combined (except 3, 4, 9 & 10) at the hip and shoulder joints, a circular motion

26

inversion

turn the sole medially

27

eversion

turn the sole laterally

28

elevation

moves in a superior direction

29

depression

moves in an inferior direction

30

protraction

moves part anterior

31

retraction

moves part posterior

32

supination

palm is turned anteriorly

33

pronation

palm is turned posteriorly