PSY 171 Exam 1

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Social and Emotional Developmental Psychology
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1

Continuity Theory

Development is a gradual or smooth change over time. (i.e. playing the violin)

2

Discontinuity Theory

Development is in discrete steps in a process (qualitative change, like walking)

3

David Reamer

The Boy Raised as a girl, evidence for nature

4

Genie

"Wild Child", evidence for nurture

5

Modern View of Nature/Nurture

Not an either/or, almost every aspect is rooted both in biology and environment

6

Equifinality

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convergence onto the same developmental endpoint, when starting off from a different factor

7

Multifinality

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Divergence of people on different developmental paths who had the same experience

8

What makes a theory "good"?

P-arsimonious

I-nternally Consistent

F-alsifiable

A-pplicable

9

Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory

-Development is shaped by basic biological drives and instincts (mostly sexual)

-Development is also a result of environmental encounters (primarily with parents)

-discontinuous, universal, nurture

10

Erikson's Psychosocial Theory

-Lifespan approach

-environment over biology

-resolutions to conflicts are turning points

11

Eight Stages of Erikson's Psychosocial Theory

1) Trust vs. Mistrust

2) Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt

3) Initiative vs. Guilt

4) Industry vs. Inferiority

5) Identity vs. Inferiority

6) Intimacy vs. Isolation

7) Generativity vs. Stagnation

8) Integrity vs. Despair

12

Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

-Transactional Perspective

-Assimilation and Accommodation

-stage theory from 0 to 12+

-active in environment "little scientists"

13

Piaget's Stage Theory (4 Stages)

1) Sensorimotor Period (birth-2)

2) Preoperational Period (2-7)

3) Concrete Operational Period (7-11)

4) Formal operational period (11+)

14

Bandura's Cognitive Social Learning Theory

Observational Learning through

1) attention

2) retention

3) reproduction

15

Bandura's Reciprocal Determinism

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How you act creates a cycle

-strong empirical evidence

-not very developmental

16

Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory

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-Individual is an active agent in environment

-development processes are culture specific

-development results from interactions between individuals and immediate environment

17

General Research Designs (3)

1) Correlational

2) Descriptive

3) Experimental

18

Correlational Study

-correlation= the degree of the relationship between two variables

-magnitude of relationship between -1.0 to +1.0

-correlation does not equal causation

19

Experimental Study

-Intervention or Natural (quasi) experiment

-random assignment: equal chance of being in control or experimental

-random selection: sampling from a population at random

20

Data Collection Methods (4)

1) Surveys and Interviews

2) Observation

3) Ethnography

4) Psychophysiological Measures

21

Cross-Sectional Time Span

Different age participants at one time

i.e. ( a 3, 5, 7, and 9 year old)

22

Longitudinal Time Span

Same participants at different ages

23

Sequential Design Time Span

Mixes both cross sectional and longitudinal

24

Biological Foundations of Development (4)

1) Preparedness: skills and reflexes that come with infancy

2) Neurology: brain development

3) Genetics: expression of genes

4) Temperament

25

Genes influence environment in three ways...

1) Passive

2) Evocative

3) Active

26

Passive G-E Correlations

-parents provide genes and environments, environments match genetic predispositions and encourage child's expression of genes

27

Evocative G-E Correlations

-Children's characteristics elicit reactions from their environments

28

Active G-E Correlations

-Children seek out certain environments, niche-picking

29

Gene X Environment Interactions

-Occur when environment has an impact on the degree to which genetic influences are expressed

-Orchids& dandelions: dandelions fair well regardless of environmental conditions (mothers without the gene), orchids suffer severely in harsh environmental conditions but blossom in good conditions (mothers with DRD2 gene)

30

Temperament

"Constitutionally based individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation, in the domains of affect, activity, and attention"

-partly genetically determined and partly determined by environment

-biological core of personality

31

Thomas & Chess- 3 Typologies

1) Easy babies (40%)

2) Difficult Babies (10%)

3) Slow to warm up babies (15%)

32

Rothbart Dimensions (3)

1) Effortful Control: Attentional focus, inhibitory control

2) Negative Affectivity: Negative emotions, soothability

3) Extraversion-Surgency: Positive emotions, activity level

33

Temperament and Personality

Surgency> Extraversion

Effortful Control>Conscientiousness

Negative Affectivity>Neuroticism

34

Temp&Env.

High Emotionality/Low Control + Harsh Parenting=

Aggression, Academic Problems, Social Problems

35

Temp&Env.

Fearful + Harsh Parenting=

Anxiety, Depression

36

Temp&Env.

Fearful + Gentle Parenting=

Conscience Development

37

Attachment

"An affectional tie that one person forms with another person binding them together in space and enduring over time" -Ainsworth 1973

-bond that forms between infant and caregiver in the first year of life

38

Ethological Theory

-Attachment is the result of biologically programmed responses from the infant and the mother for survival of the species

39

Harry Harlow's Monkey Experiments

-cloth/wire surrogate mothers, monkeys went to cloth mother for comfort rather than wire mother for food, attachment is not soley based on need for food for survival, emotional connection plays a large part

40

Mary Ainsworth

Viewed attachment as based in evolution, encouraged mothers to show affection to their babies

41

Patterns of Attachment (4)

-Secure (65%)

-Insecure-avoidant (20%)

- Insecure-ambivalent (10-15%)

-Insecure-disorganized (5-10%)

42

Secure Attachment

Use parent as secure base to explore, may show distress at separation, but show joy/relief at reunion, easy to soothe by parent

Parenting: sensitivity, flexibility, acceptance, availability, synchrony, understanding

43

Insecure-avoidant attachment

Little concern for parent's absence, in place of greeting parent at a reunion they may show active avoidance, ignoring their parent's bids for communication

Parenting: intrusive, rejecting, angry or irritable

44

Insecure-ambivalent Attachment

Unable to use parent as secure base to explore, distressed by parent's absence but who anger and resentment upon reunion-seek contact and then reject offer

Parenting: inconsistent, unaffectionate

45

Insecure-disorganzied Attachment

Greatest insecurity and most rare, contradictory patterns of behavior (e.g. give a smile and then abruptly look away, approach by backing up to mother, frozen postures)

Parenting: neglect, abuse, severe depression

46

What are Emotions?

-subjective reaction to environment

- physiological arousal

-expression and actions

-cognitions

47

Components of Emotional Development (3)

1) Emotion Expression

2) Emotion Understanding

3) Emotion Regulation

48

Development of Emotional Expression

-Birth: positive/negative emotion

- 2-7 months: primary emotions (anger, sadness, fear, joy, surprise)

- 1-3 years: development of secondary emotions (self-conscious emotions, embarrassment, shame, guilt, pride)

-early developing emotions become more elaborated with age

49

Development of Fear

-Fear of Strangers: wariness to true fear

-Separation Anxiety: peaks at 15 months

-Fear of Heights: learned with experience