Sociology 7

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created 6 years ago by mjm29037
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1

Conflict theory

a theory that examines social and economic factors as the causes of criminal deviance

2

Control Theory

a theory that states social control is directly affected by the strength of social bonds and the deviance results from a feeling of disconnection from society

3

corporate crime

crime committed by white collar workers in a business environment

4

corrections system

the system tasked with supervising individuals who have been arrested for, convicted of, or sentenced for criminal offenses

5

court

a system that has the authority to make decisions based on law

6

crime

a behavior that violates official law and is punishable through formal sanctions

7

criminal justice system

an organization that exists to enforce a legal code

8

cultural deviance theory

a theory that suggests conformity to the prevailing cultural norms of lower class society causes crime

9

deviance

a violation of contextual, cultural, or social norms

10

differential association theory

a theory that states individuals learn deviant behavior from those close to them who provide models of and opportunities for deviance

11

formal sanctions

sanctions that are officially recognized and enforced

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hate crimes

attacks based on a person's race, religion, or other characteristics

13

informal sanctions

sanctions that occur in face to face interactions

14

labeling theory

the ascribing of a deviant behavior to another person by members of society

15

legal codes

codes that maintain formal social control through laws

16

master status

a label that describes the chief characteristic of an individual

17

negative sanctions

punishments for violating norms

18

nonviolent crimes

crimes that involve the destruction or theft of property, but do not use force or the threat of force

19

police

a civil force in charge of regulating laws and public order at a federal, state, or community level

20

positive sanctions

rewards given for conforming to the norms

21

power elite

a small group of wealthy and influential people at the top of society who hold the power and resources

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primary deviance

a violation of norms that does not result in any long term effects on the individuals self image or interactions with them

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sanctions

the means of enforcing rules

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secondary deviance

deviance that occurs when a person's self concept and behavior begin to change after his or her actions are labeled as deviant by members of society

25

self report study

a collection of data acquired using voluntary response methods, such as questionairres or telephone interviews

26

social control

the regulation and enforcement of norms

27

social disorganization theory

a theory that asserts crime occurs in communities with weak social ties and the absence of social control

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social order

an arrangement of practices and behaviors on which society's members base their daily lives

29

strain theory

a theory that addresses the relationship between having socially acceptable goals and having socially acceptable means to reach those goals

30

street crimes

crime committed by average people against other people or organizations, usually in public space

31

victimless crime

activities against the law, but that do not result in injury to any individual other than the person who engages in them

32

violent crimes

crimes based on the use of force or the threat of force