Phenols, Alcohols, Ethers, Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acid

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created 7 years ago by Sharon_Harvey
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updated 7 years ago by Sharon_Harvey
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1

Carboxylic Acid (-COOH)

weak acid (vinegar,citrus, metabolism/lactic acid)

sour taste, corrosive, litmus=red, high melt/bp (becasue they can form 2 H bonds, so more stability)

Soap! salts of long chain carboxylic acids with strong bases

2

Aldehydes and ketone reactions

oxidation & reduction (=esters and -COOHs)

Hemiacetals and acetals (carbohydrate structures)

3

Properties and uses of aldhydes and ketones

Strong odour (flowers, fruit) used in perfumes, flavours

Important aldehydes:formaldehyde (preservative, manufacturing, vax) vanillin (vanilla) benzaldehyde (almonds) cinnamaldehyde (cinnamon plant) horomones (testosterone, progesterone, cortisol)

Lower boiling and melting points than alcohol

Higher boiling and melting points than ethers/alkanes (

4

Aldehydes and Ketones

Carbonyl group as part of their functional group

5

Structure of Ethers

O between 2C in the hydrocarbon chain

6

Properties of phenols?

both aromatic compounds and alcohols

weak acids

irritants to skin and mucus membrane

antiseptic propeties (lysol, thymol, eugenol)

antioxident properties (BHA, BHT, Vit E, Resveratrol)

flavouring (vanillian)

transmitters (dopamine, adrenalin, noradrenalin)

7

Define the phenol structure:

an -OH group attached to a benzine ring

8

Oxidation causes secondary alcohols to:

form ketones

9

Oxidation causes primary alcohols to?

transform into esters and carboxylic acids

10

Define Alcohols

-OH (hydroxyl) group attached to the hydrocarbon chain

11

Which of the following is a general physical property of alkanes?

a. Low solubility in water.

c.More dense than water.

b. Less volatile than water.

d.More polar than water.

a

12

Common feature found in all unsaturated hydrocarbons:

a) one or more carbon-carbon double bonds

b) one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds

c) one or more carbon-carbon multiple bonds

c

13

Give one example of uses for:

a. carboxylic acid

b. esters

c. ethers

d. aldehydes

e. ketones

a. vinegar

b. fruit

c. pharmaceuticals

d. vaccines

e. fragrance

14

Which compounds are soluable in water?

a. glycerol

b. butane

c. pentane

a. gylcerol

15

What gives alcohol a higher boiling point than alkanes (of similar molecular mass)

Hydrogen bonding

16

Is denatured alcohol drinking alcohol

No, it is alcohol that has been changed to be not drinkable (methylated spirits)

17

True or false?

a. Thiols have a very strong odour?

b. Thiols have strong resistance to oxidation

a. T

b. F

18

The hydroxyl bearing carbon in an secondary alcohol:

a. is always involved in a double bond

b. is attached to two other carbons

c. cannot be bonded to hydrogen

b. is attached to two other carbons

19

The solubility of alcohol in water:

a. increases with molecular mass

b. decreases as the number of -OH groups increase

c. decrease as carbon chain lengthens

c. decrease as carbon chain lengthens

20

True or false? the sulfhydryl functional group is found in thiols?

True

21

Which of the following statements about alcohol is true?

a. wood and grain alcohol are the same substances

b. rubbing alcohol is pure ethyl alcohol

c. absolute alcohol is pure isopropanol

d. ethanol can be produced by fermentation

d. ethanol can be produced by fermentation

22

Alcohols have a higer boiling point than alkanes of similar molecular mass because:

a. alcohols are ionic compounds and alkanes are covalent compounds

b. alkane molecules are polar and alcohol molecules are not.

c. hydrogen bonding occurs between alcohol molecules but not between alkane molecules

d. alcohols are acidi and alkans are not

c. hydrogen bonding occurs between alcohol molecules but not between alkane molecules

23

What is the IUPAC name for: CH3-CH-OH

|

CH3

2- propanol (new)

isopropyl alcohol (old)