Biology

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1

Organic compound

Compound containing carbon oxygen and hydrogen

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Important molecules for all living things

Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acid

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What is the macromolecule of carbohydrates?

Polysaccharides

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Polysaccaraides

Polymers composed of many sugar building blocks

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Disaccharide or glycosidic linkage

Formed When a dehydration reaction joint two monosaccharides

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Starch

Storage polysaccharide of plants

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Granules

How plant store surplus starch

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Glycogen

A storage polysaccharide in animals

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Cellulose

Major component of the tough walls of plant cells

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Chitin

Found in the exoskeleton of arthropods

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Why are lipids hydrophobic?

They consist mostly of hydrocarbons which form nonpolar covalent bonds

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Most common lipids

Fats phospholipids and steroids

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Saturated fatty acid

Had the max number of hydrogen Atoms And no double bonds

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Unsaturated fatty acid

How one or more double bonds

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Phospholipid

Two fatty acids and a phosphate group attached to the Glycerol

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Steroids

Lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of 4 fused rings

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Proteins functions

Defense, storage, transport, cellular communication, movement and structural support

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Enzymatic proteins

Act as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions

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Polypeptides

Unbranched polymers built from the same set of 20 amino acids

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Protein

Biologically functional molecule that consist of one or more polypeptides

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Amino acids

Organic molecule with carboxyl and amino groups

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Primary structure

The unique sequence of amino acids

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Secondary structure

Consists of coils and folds in the polypeptide chain also known as helix pleated sheets

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Tertiary structure

Determined by interactions among various sidechains has a 3-D structure

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Quaternary structure

Results from interactions between multiple polypeptide chains, two or more tertiary structures

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The loss of a proteins Native structure, becomes inactive

Desaturation

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What can change a protein structure?

PH, salt concentration, temperature or environmental factors

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Functions of a nucleic acid

Store transmit and help express hereditary info

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Amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is programmed by a unit of a inheritance

Gene

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Deoxyribonucleic acid

Provide directions for replications

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Ribonucleic acid

Controls protein synthesis

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What are polynucleotides made up of?

Nucleotides

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Nucleotides

A nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar and one or more phosphate group

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DNA

A complementary base paired, repeating, double-stranded, anti-parallel, helix

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Cell

SImplest collection of matter that can be alive

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Prokaryotic

Bacteria & archaea

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Protist, fungi, animals and plants

Eukaryotic

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Basic features of all cells

Plasma membrane, semi fluid substance called cytosol, chromosomes, ribosomes

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Characteristics of prokaryotic cell

No nucleus, DNA in a unbound region called nucleoid, no membrane bound organelles, cytoplasm bound by the plasma membrane

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Characteristics of a eukaryotic cell

DNA in a nucleus, membrane-bound organelle, cytoplasm

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Plasma membrane

Selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients and waste to service the volume of the cell

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Nuclear envelope

Encloses the nucleus, separating it from the cytoplasm

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Nuclear membrane

A double membrane, each membrane consists of a lipid Bilayer

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Pores

Regulate the entry and exit of molecules from the nucleus

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Nuclear lamina

Maintains the shape

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Chromosomes

DNA organized into discrete units

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Chromatin

The DNA and proteins of chromosome together

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Nucleolus

Located within the nucleus and is the site of ribosomal RNA synthesis

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Functions of ribosomes

Carry out protein synthesis in the cytosol and on the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or the nuclear envelope

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Endomembrane system

Regulates traffic & performs metabolic functions in the cell

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Parts of the Endomembrane system

Nuclear envelope, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, vacuoles and plasma membrane

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Functions of smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Synthesizes lipids, metabolizes carbohydrates, detoxifies drugs and poisons, stores calcium ions

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Functions of rough ER

Modifies products of the endoplasmic reticulum, manufactures certain macromolecules, sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles

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Lysosome

A membranous sac of Hydrolytic enzymes that can digest macromolecules

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Phagocytosis

One cell engulfs another forming a food vacuole

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Vacuoles

Large vesicle derived from the endoplasmic reticulum and golgo apparatus

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Mitochondria

The sites of cellular respiration, a metabolic process that uses Oxygen to generate ATP

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Mitochondria & chloroplasts similarities to bacteria

Envelope by a double membrane, contain free Ribosomes and Circular DNA molecule, grow and reproduce somewhat independently in cells

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Endosymbiont theory

An early ancestor of eukaryotic cells engulfed a non-photosynthetic prokaryotic cell, which formed an Endosymbiont relationship with its host. The host cell and endosymbiont Merged into a single organism, a eukaryotic cell with mitochondrian

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Endosymbiont theory 4 cholorplasts

At least one of the cells may have taken up a photosynthetic prokaryotes, become an ancestor to cells with chloroplast

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Cholorplasts

Capture light energy

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Peroxisomes

Specialize metabolic compartments and by a single membrane

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Functions of Peroxisomes

Produce hydrogen peroxide and convert it into water

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Cytoskeleton

A network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm

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Functions of cytoskeleton

Helps to support the cell and maintain its shape and interacts with motor proteins to produce motility

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Centrioles

Microtubule organizing center, microtubles grow out, has a pair of centrioles each with 9 triplets of microtubules arranged in a ring

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Microtubules

Control the beating of cilia & flagella

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Cell walls of plants

An extracellular structure that distinguishes plant cells from animal cells

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Function of the cell wall of plants

Protects the plant sale maintains its shape and prevents excessive uptake of water

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Integral proteins

Penetrate the hydrophobic interior of the lipid Bilayer

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Transmembrane proteins

Integral proteins that span the membrane

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Peripheral proteins

Loosely bound to the surface of the membrane

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Six major functions of membrane proteins

Transport, enzymatic activity, attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, cell to cell recognition, intercellular joining, signal transduction

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Transport proteins

Allow hydrophilic substances across the membrane

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Carrier proteins

Bind to the molecule and change shape to shuttle them across the membrane, specific to the substance in moves

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Diffusion

The tendency for molecules to spread out evenly into the available space

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Dynamic equilibrium

As many molecules across the membrane and one direction as other

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Osmosis

The diffusion of free water across a selectively permeable membrane. Water diffuses across a membrane from the region of lower solute concentration to the region of higher concentration until the solute concentration is equal on both sides

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Tonicity

The ability of a surrounding solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water

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Osmoregulation

The control of solute concentration and water

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Hypotonic

Solute concentration is less than the inside to cell, cell gains water

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Hypertonic

Solute concentration is higher than that inside the cell, cell lose water

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Isotonic

Solute concentration is the same as inside the cell, no net water movement across the plasma membrane

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Active transport

can move solutes against their concentration gradients

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Membrane potential

The voltage across a membrane

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Voltage

Created by the difference in the distribution of positive and negative ions across the membrane

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Electrochemical gradient

Drives the diffusion of ions across a membrane

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Exocytosis

Transport vesicles migrate to the membrane, fuse with it and release their contents

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Endocytosis

The cell takes in molcules and particulate matter bu forming new vesicles from the plasma membrane

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Types of endocytosis

Phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor-medicated endocytosis

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Bio chemical properties of phospholipids

Number of double bonds, length fatty acid tails, amount of cholesterol