Organic Chem Ch 3

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Organic Chemistry
Chapter 3
updated 5 years ago by OceansVoice
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1

Alkane

Hydrocarbon that contains only single bonds

2

Alkenes

Double bonds

3

Alkyne

Triple bonds

4

Hydrocarbons

Molecules that are made of carbon and hydrogen only

5

General formula for alkane

CnH2n+2

6

Methylene group

-CH2-

7

1 carbon

Methane

8

2 C

Ethane

9

3C

Propane

10

4C

Butane

11

5C

Pentane

12

6C

Hexane

13

7C

Heptane

14

8C

Octane

15

9C

Nonane

16

10C

Decane

17

11C

Undecane

18

12C

Dodecane

19

13C

Tridecane

20

14C

Tetradecane

21

15C

Pentadecane

22

16C

Hexadecane

23

17C

Heptadecane

24

18C

Octadecane

25

19C

Nonadecane

26

20C

Eicosane

27

30C

Triacontane

28

N-

No branches

29

Iso-

One branch

30

Neo-

Two branches

31

Conformations

Different arrangements of atoms caused by rotation about a single bond

32

Single bond

Sigma bond

33

Double bond

Pi bond

34

5 confirmations in a bond

Staggered - lowest nrg, most stable

Eclipsed - highest nrg, least stable (120 degrees), only when H are eclipsed

Totally eclipsed (0 degrees) - two big groups line up

Gauche (60 degrees staggered) - 2 big groups are staggered

Anti (180 degrees staggered) - 2 big groups are opposite each other, as far away from each other as can get

35

Cycloalkane formula

CnH2n

36

In Alkanes the boiling point and melting point depend on what?

Molecular weight. Higher weight, higher the BP

37

Geometric isomers

Form only in double and triple bonds that can't move

38

Cis isomer

Same side (thick black line)

39

Trans isomer

Opposite side (dotted line)

40

Torsional strain

card image

When all the bonds are eclipsed in a ring only (very reactive)

41

Conformations of cyclohexane

card image

Chair - most stable as more roomy and no eclipsing interactions, axial in original conformation becomes Equatorial in the new conformation

Boat - eclipsing bonds result in torsional strain

42

Equatorial

Lowest energy, less reactive because far away

43

Axial

Closest to others and highest energy

44

Constitutional Isomers

Same molecular formula but are arranged differently (usually found in double and triple bonds)

45

How can you tell how polar something is?

Look at electronegetivity table ... The difference in the C and the other it's attached to.

C-CH (C-C) vs C-OH (C-O) vs C-Cl

46

What does an R represent?

An alkyl group

47

How can you tell if something is nonpolar or polar

Find electronegetivity difference. If .4 or less it's nonpolar covalent. If greater than 2 it's ionic. If Inbetween its dipole.

48

How can you tell how acidic something is?

The greater the electronegetivity, the more H comes off in water and thus more acidic. Also if a charge is spread over more atoms then the H is more likely to come off.

49

What is a butyl group

C- attached to one two (sec) or three (tert) CH3 groups