Organic Chem Ch 3
Hydrocarbon that contains only single bonds
Molecules that are made of carbon and hydrogen only
General formula for alkane
Different arrangements of atoms caused by rotation about a single bond
5 confirmations in a bond
Staggered - lowest nrg, most stable
Eclipsed - highest nrg, least stable (120 degrees), only when H are eclipsed
Totally eclipsed (0 degrees) - two big groups line up
Gauche (60 degrees staggered) - 2 big groups are staggered
Anti (180 degrees staggered) - 2 big groups are opposite each other, as far away from each other as can get
In Alkanes the boiling point and melting point depend on what?
Molecular weight. Higher weight, higher the BP
Form only in double and triple bonds that can't move
Same side (thick black line)
Opposite side (dotted line)
When all the bonds are eclipsed in a ring only (very reactive)
Conformations of cyclohexane
Chair - most stable as more roomy and no eclipsing interactions, axial in original conformation becomes Equatorial in the new conformation
Boat - eclipsing bonds result in torsional strain
Lowest energy, less reactive because far away
Closest to others and highest energy
Same molecular formula but are arranged differently (usually found in double and triple bonds)
How can you tell how polar something is?
Look at electronegetivity table ... The difference in the C and the other it's attached to.
C-CH (C-C) vs C-OH (C-O) vs C-Cl
What does an R represent?
An alkyl group
How can you tell if something is nonpolar or polar
Find electronegetivity difference. If .4 or less it's nonpolar covalent. If greater than 2 it's ionic. If Inbetween its dipole.
How can you tell how acidic something is?
The greater the electronegetivity, the more H comes off in water and thus more acidic. Also if a charge is spread over more atoms then the H is more likely to come off.
What is a butyl group
C- attached to one two (sec) or three (tert) CH3 groups