lipids

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1

what are lipids?

-fats and oils

-carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

-9 cal/gm

2

what are functions of lipid?

1) INSULATOR: helps maintain temperature

2) CUSHIONS body organs

3) CHIEF form of stored energy

4) MAJOR component of cell membrane

3

why do we need fat in our diets?

1) spares protein

2) provides essential fatty acids (unable to be produced by the body)

3) help with absorption of fat-soluble vitamin A,D,E,K

4) enhances flavor

5) sense of fullness- slows rate of gastric emptying

4

TOO LITTLE FAT IN THE DIET:

-dry scaly skin, hair loss, impaired growth, poor wound healing, visual impairment

5

TOO MUCH FAT IN THE DIET:

-obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer

6

what are some types of lipids?

-simple lipids: found in food and in the body (monosaccharides, disaccharides, triglycerides)

-structural lipids: produced by the body (phospholipids, lipoproteins, sterols)

-monoglycerides: glycerol + 1 fatty acids

-diglycerides: glycerol + fatty acids

**by products of digestion

**found in the small intestine

-triglycerides: glycerol + 3 fatty acid

7

triglycerides

-most common type of lipid

-95% of fat found in foods and in body tissue

-glycerol backbone + fatty acids

-each of the 3 fatty acids may be different

8

GLYCEROL

an alcohol, 3 carbons ends with an -OH group

9

FATTY ACIDS

a chain of carbon atoms with attached hydrogen atoms and an acid group on the end (-COOH)

10

FATTY ACIDS

classified by:

1) length of the chain of carbon atoms

2) degree of saturation

11

what are two types of chains?

-short chain (less than 6 carbons)

-medium chain (6-10 carbons)

**easily digested and absorbed

-long chain (more than 10 carbons)

**harder to digest

**must by broken down into smaller chains

**most fats in foods are long chain

12

what is the classification of fatty acids?

-saturated fatty acid

**animal fats

-unsaturated fatty acids

**monounsaturated fatty acids

**polyunsaturated fatty acids

>>>>omega 3

>>>>omega 6

>>>>trans fatty acid

13

saturated fatty acids

-only single bonds within the main carbon chain

-in general, the more saturated the fat, the more likely it is to be a skid at room temperature saturated

14

saturated fatty acids

-some vegetable oils remain a liquid even though they are saturated

-found primarily in animal products (beef, chicken, pork, butter, eggs, cheese)

-most are solids at room temperature

-also found in chocolate

15

what are saturated fats that are oils?

>palm oil, cottenseed oil, coconut oil

(tropical oils that are liquids at room temperature because they have short carbon chains)

16

saturated fatty acids

single bond

-should be avoided

-increase the risk for cardiovascular disease

>>>increase total serum cholestrol

>>>increase LDL level

-limit to 10% of calories or less per day

17

saturated fatty acids

palmitic acid, stearic acid

-part of the organic component of tooth enamel and dentin

18

MONOUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

-AKA "MUFA"

-only 1 double bond in the carbon chain

-found primarily in plants

-limit to 10% or less of total calories per day

19

MUFA

-may have positive effect by decrease total cholesterol level increase HDL (goods) level

20

MUFA

-omega 9

ex: olive oil, peanut oil, canola oil

(cashews, peanuts, almonds, avocados)

21

MUFA

OLEIC ACID

-found in olive, peanut, and canola oils

-also a tooth component

22

POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID

-2 or more double bond in the carbon chain

-essential fatty acids:cannot by produced by the body

-may have positive effect

>>>>lowers total cholestrol levels

>>>>lowers LDL

23

what are the categories of PUFA:

1) omega 3 fatty acid

2) omega 6 fatty acid

3) trans fatty acid

24

PUFA'S- OMEGA 3

-indicates where first double bond is located

-omega 3 fatty acids first double bond is located on 3rd carbon from terminal end

C-C-C=C-C-COOH

omega end carboxyl group

25

OMEGA 3 FATTY ACIDS

-"heart healthy fatty acids"

-plant and fish oils

ex:DHA, EPA, ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID

ex: soybean oil, canola oil, salmon, mackerel, wheat germ, leafy veggies

-fish oil capsules

26

OMEGA 3 FATTY ACIDS

health benefits

-antiarryhthmic effect

-development and function of retina and cerebral cortex

*safe dose 400 mg

-enhance immune system

-prevention of cardiovascular and periodontal disease

27

OMEGA 3 FATTY ACIDS

low cholesterol levels

-reduces risk for arthersclerosis (hardening of the arteries due to plaque build-up)

28

Omega 3 fatty acids

- used to produce compounds that regulate blood pressure and clotting

- no recommended daily amount

- enough can cause bruising increase bleeding time and increased risk of stroke

29

Omega 6 fatty acid

- grains and fish oil

ex. Linoleic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid

ex:safflower oil, soybean oil, corn oil, seeds, nuts, walnuts, peanuts, sesame oil

30

OMEGA 6 FATTY ACIDS

Linoleic and linoleum acids are

The only essential acids

31

EFFECTS OF OMEGA 6 FATTY ACIDS

- necessary for growth reproduction and maintenance of skin integrity

32

What are deficiencies that can result from omega 6 fatty acid

- skin rash

- growth retardation

- kidney and liver disorder

-

33

Omega 6 fatty acids recommends

-intake of EEA's (linoleum and linoleum acids) 1 tablespoon per day

historical note: 1 tablespoon of cod liver oil fulfills the requirements

34

Trans fatty acid

found and intake

- small amounts of trans fatty acids occur naturally and some foods

- not harmful

- found in beef, lamb, pork and dairy products

35

TRANS FATTY ACIDS AREā€¦.

-unsaturated fatty acids with at least 1 double bond

- most occur as a result of food processing

- result of hydrogenation of a polysaturates fatty acids

36

Trans fatty acids

HYDROGRNATION

:Adding hydrogen in order to make a liquid into a solid

-the more hydrogen bonds, the more "solid the product"

37

TRANS FATTY ACID

Hydrogenation changes the shape

Of fatty acids by rotating the position of the hydrogens

38

TRANS FATTY ACIDS

most unsaturated fatty acids occur

-naturally in "cis" form

**the hydrogen are located on the same side of the double bond

39

TRANS FATTY ACID

bonding form

-the 'trans' form, the hydrogen are on the opposite side of the double bond

40

TRANS FATTY ACID

synthetically

product trans fatty acid---HARMFUL!!!

41

DISADVANTAGES OF TRANS FATS

-after hydrogenation, product loses any health advantage

-increase risk of cardiovascular diseases by increasing total cholesterol and LDL levels

ex: tub margarine

**began as PUFA, now acts like a saturated fat

42

AVOID TRANS FATS FOUND IN

- large percentage of processed foods

-margarine, cakes, snacks, chips, doughnuts, peanut butter, cookies, shortening

>"hydrogenated fat" or partially hydrogenated- means trans-fat

43

STRUCTURAL LIPIDS

1) phospholipids

2)lipoproteins

3)sterols

-produced by the body==not require in the diet

-does not provide energy

44

PHOSPHOLIPIDS

- GLYCEROL + 2 FATTY ACID + PHOSPHATE + R GROUP

-second most prevalent form of fat in the body

-found in cell membrane, tooth enamel, and dentin

45

PHOSPHOLIPIDS

and what can it produce

-not required in the diet

**body can produce its own supple

1)LECITHIN

2) SPHINGOMYELIN

3)CEPHALIN

46

TYPES OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS

lecithin

-most common type

-additive to prevent fat and water from seperating

-egg yolks, soybeans

47

TYPES OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS

sphingomyelin

-constituent of brain tissue and myelin sheath around nerve fibers

48

TYPES OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS

cephalin

needed for blood clotting

49

4 CLASSES OF LIPOPROTEINS

classified

- according to density

~the more fat, the lower the density

~the more protein, the higher the density

50

4 CLASSES OF LIPOPROTEIN

1) HDL

2) LDL

3) VLDL

4) chylomicrons

51

LIPOPROTEIN

HDL

"H" for healthy

high in protein, low in fat "good cholesterol"

52

LIPOPROTEIN

LDL

"Bad cholestrol"

-more fat than protein

53

LIPOPROTEIN

VLDL

very low density lipoprotein

54

LIPOPROTEIN

chylomicrons

-carry fat in the plasma

-milky substance

-60% triglycerides

55

RECOMMENDED LEVELS OF LIPOPROTIENS

- total lipoprotein level~less than 200

*HDL- greater than 60

* LDL- less than 100

56

DIETARY GOALS

-increase HDL

-decrease LDL

decrease total lipoprotein level

57

GENETIC LINK TO HIGH LIPOPROTEIN LEVEL

*body make 2-4 times more cholesterol than it gets from food

-cholesterol intake from the diet has the least effect on plasma cholesterol level

58

TREATMENT FOR ELEVATED LIPOPROTEIN LEVEL

-reduction in saturated fat may be advised

>low cholesterol, low fat diet rarely lowers cholesterol more than 15%

-medications may be necessary (statins)

59

STEROLS

-carbons in a ring structure rather than in long chains

-precursors for many essential substances including bile acids, vitamin D and hormones

60

STEROLS

are found

in the brain and nervous tissue, and cell membranes

*component of bile salts

*structural component of teeth

*includes "true" cholestrol

61

what the functions of phospholipids?

-involved in calcification and mineralization of teeth and bones

-involved in fat absorption and fat transport in the blood

-allows vitamins and hormones to pass in and out of cells

62

LIPOPROTEINS

-triglycerides + phospholipid + cholesterol + protein

-produced by the body to transport insoluble fats in the blood

-produced by the liver and intestinal mucosa

-commonly referred to as cholesterol

63

CHOLESTEROL

-ring structure

-made in liver and small intestine

- 2-4 times more cholesterol produced by the body than taken in through foods

-lipoprotein transported this cholesterol in the blood

64

DIETARY CHOLESTEROL

>found only in foods of animal

origin-

*meats, egg yolk, dairy products, liver and organ meats

>dietary source not required;can by manufactured by the body

65

FAT DIGESTION AND ABOSROPTION

-small intestine

-enzyme requires lipase and bile acids

66

FAT DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION

A significant association has been found between dietary fat intake and chronic diseases such as obesity, cancer,and cardiovascular disease

67

THERE MAY BE A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN

gingivitis and periodontal disease and plaque that accumulates on arterial walls

68

AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION GOALS

-low fat and low saturated diet

-include omega 3 fatty acids

-eat whole grains, fruits and vegetables

-eat more soy protein

-maintain healthy weight

-regular exercise

-eliminate smoking

PREVENT AND ELIMINATE PERIODONTAL DISEASE