Exercise 6 Review Sheet Lab Manual Human Anatomy

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1

Condyle

Rounded, articular projection

- takes part in joint formation

2

Crest

Narrow ridge of bone

- a site of muscle and ligament attachment

3

Epicondyle

Raised area on or above a condule

- a site of muscle and ligament attachment

4

Facet

Smooth, nearly flat articular surface

- takes part in joint formation

5

Fissure

Narrow opening

- a passageway for nerves or blood vessels

6

Foramen

Round or oval opening through a bone

- a passageway for nerves or blood vessels

7

Fossa

Shallow depression

8

Head

Structure supported on neck

9

Meatus

Canal-like structure

10

Process

Projection or prominence

11

Ramus

Arm-like projection

- takes part in joint formation

12

Sinus

Air-filled cavity

13

Spine

Sharp, slender process

- a site of muscle and ligament attachment

14

Trochanter

Large, irregularly shape projection

- a site of muscle and ligament attachment

15

Tubercle

Small rounded projection

- a site of muscle and ligament attachment

16

Tuberosity

Large rounded projection

- a site of muscle and ligament attachment

17

4 majored anatomical classifications of bones

Which category has the least amount of spongy bone relative to its total volume?

Long bones

18

Give examples of long bones

Femur, tibia, fibula, numerous, phalange

19

Give examples of irregular bones

Pelvic girdle, vertebrae

20

Give examples of flat bones

Ribs, sternum, sutures of skull, scapula

21

Give examples of sesamoid bones

Hyoid (back of chin), patella

22

Give examples of short bones

Carpal and tarsals

23

Contains spongy bone in adults

Trabeculae of spongy bone

24

Made of compact bone

Epiphysis

25

Site of blood cell formation

Red marrow cavity

26

Major submembranous site of osteoclasts

Endosteum and periosteum

27

Scientific term for bone shaft

Diaphysis

28

Contains fat in adult bones

Yellow Marrow

29

Storage region for adipose tissue, or yellow marrow

Medullary Cavity

30

Growth plate remnant

Epiphyseal line

31

What are the differences between compact and spongy bone that can be seen with the naked eye?

Compact looks smooth and homogeneous

Spongy - composed of trabeculae and lots of open space

32

What is the function of the periosteum

Serves as an attachment point for muscles and bones through tendons and ligaments

33

Trace the route taken by nutrients through a bone

Periosteum --> Perforating canals --> Central canals --> Canaliculi --> Lancunae --> Osteocyte

34

Layers of bony matrix around a central canal

Concentric lamellae

35

Site of osteocytes

Lacunae

36

Longitudinal canal carrying blood vessels, lymphatic, and nerves

Central canal

37

Minute canals connecting Osteocytes of an osteon

Canaliculi

38

Inorganic salts deposited in organic ground substance

Matrix

39

What is the function of the organic matrix in bone?

Gives bone flexibility and strength

40

Name the important organic bone components.

Collagen fibers and osteocytes

41

Calcium salts form the bulk of the inorganic material in bone. What is the function of the calcium salts?

Gives bones hardness and compressional strength

42

Baking removes __________ from bone. Soaking in acid removes the __________.

1. The organic part

2. The minerals

43

Compare and contract events occurring on the epiphyseal and diaphyseal faces of the epiphyseal plate.

Epiphyseal face: Cartilage cells continuing to grow and divide mitotically

Diaphyseal face: Cartilage cells are aging, dying, and then osteoblasts move in to form bone

44

Type of cartilage

Supports the external ear

Elastic

45

Type of cartilage

Between the vertebrae

Fibrocartilage

46

Type of cartilage

Forms the walls of the voice box (larynx)

Hyaline

47

Type of cartilage

The epiglottis

Elastic

48

Type of cartilage

Articular cartilages

Hyaline

49

Type of cartilage

Meniscus in a knee joint

Fibrocartilage

50

Type of cartilage

Connects the ribs to the sternum

Hyaline

51

Type of cartilage

Most effective at resisting compression

Fibrocartilage

52

Type of cartilage

Most springy and flexible

Elastic

53

Type of cartilage

Most abundant

Hyaline

54

Connective tissue ensheathing a bundle of muscle cells

Perimysium

55

Bundle of muscle cells

Fascicle

56

Contractile unit of muscle

Sarcomere

57

A muscle cell

Myofibril

58

Thin reticular connective tissue surrounding each muscle cell

Endomysium

59

Plasma membrane of the muscle fiber

Sarcoplasm

60

A long filamentous organelle with a banded appearance found within muscle cells

Fiber

61

Actin - or myosin - containing structure

Myofilament

62

Cord of collagen fibers that attaches a muscle to a bone

Tendon

63

List three reasons why the connective tissue wrappings of skeletal muscles are important

1. Supporting and binding the muscle fibers

2. Providing strength to the muscle as a whole

3. To provide a route for the entry and exit of nerves and blood vessels that serve the muscle fibers

64

Why are there more indirect - that is, tendinous - muscle attachments to bone than there are direct attachments?

They can span rough, bony prominence that would destroy the more delicate muscle tissues and because of their relatively small size, more tendons than muscles can pass over joints.

65

How does an aponeurosis differ from a tendon structurally?

Tendons are strong and cord-like and attach muscle to bone.

Aponeurosis are sheet-like and attach muscle to muscle

66

How is an aponeurosis functionally similar to a tendon?

Both connect muscle (?)

67

The junction between a motor neuron's axon and the muscle cell membrane is called ________ junction.

Myoneural junction

68

A motor neutron and all of the skeletal muscle cells it stimulates is called a _________.

Motor unit

69

The actual gap between the axon terminal and the muscle cell is called a ________.

Synaptic cleft

70

Within the axon terminal are many small vehicles containing a neurotransmitter substance called _________.

(ACh) Acetylcholine

71

When the _________ reaches the ends of the axon, the neurotransmitter is released and diffuses to the muscle cell membrane to combine with receptors there.

Nerve impulse

72

The combining of the neurotransmitter with the muscle membrane receptors causes the membrane to become permeable to both sodium and potassium. The greater influx of sodium inions results ________ of the membrane.

Permeability