NASM Essentials of Personal Fitness Training: Basic Exercise Science - Skeletal System Flashcards


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1

Skeletal System

The bodys framework, composed of bones and joints

2

Bones

Provide a resting ground for muscles and protection of vital organs.

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Joints

Junctions of bones, muscles, and connective tissue at which movement occurs. Also known as an articulation.

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Axial skeleton

Portion of the skeletal system that consists of the skull, rib cage and vertebral column

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Appendicular skeleton

Portion of the skeletal system that includes the upper and lower extremities.

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Remodelig

The process of resorption and formation of bone.

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Osteoclasts

A type of bone cell that removes bone tissue.

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Osteoblasts

A type of cell that is responsible for bone formation.

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Epiphysis

The end of long bones, which is mainly composed of cancellous bone, and house much of the red marrow involved in red blood cell production.

They are also one of the primary sites for bone growth.

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Diaphysis

The shaft portion of a long bone

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Epiphyseal plate

The region of long bone connecting the diaphysis to the epiphysis. It is a layer of subdividing cartilaginous cells in which growth in length of the diaphysis occurs

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Periosteum

A dense memnrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps all bone, except that of the articulationg surfaces in joints, which are covered by a synovial membrane.

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Medullar cavity

The central cavity of bone shafts where marrow is stored

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Articular cartilage (hyaline)

Cartilage that covers the articular surfaces of bones

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Depressions

Flattended or indented portions of bone, which can be muscle attachment sites

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Processes

Projections protruding from the bone where muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach

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Vertebral column

A series of irregularly shaped bones called vertebrae that houses the spinal cord

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Arthrokinematics

Joint motion

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Synovial joints

Joints that are held together by a joint capsule and ligaments and are most associated with movement in the body

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Ligament

Primary connective tissue that connects bones together and provides stability input to the nervous system, guidance, and the limitation of improper joint movement

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Joint:

Nonsynovial

No joint cavity and fibrous connective tissue; little or no movement

Ex. Sutures of the skull

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Joint:

Synovial

Produces synovial fluid, has joint cavity and fibrous connective tissue

Ex. Knee (and most of other movable joints)

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Joints:

Gliding

No axis of rotation; moves by sliding side-to-side or back and forth

Ex. Carpals of the hand

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Joints:

Condyloid

Formed y the fitting of condyles of one bone into elliptical cavities of another; move predominantly in one plane

Ex. Knee

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Joints:

Hinge

Uniaxial; oves predominantly in one plane of motion (sagittal)

Ex. Elbow

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Joints:

Saddle

One bone fits like a saddle on another bone; moves predominantly in two planes (sagittal, joint of thmb frontal)

Ex. Only: carpometamarpal

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Joints:

Pivot

Only one axis; moves predominantly in one plane of motion (transverse)

Ex. Radioulnar

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Ball-and-socket

Most mobile of joints; moves in all three planes of motion

Ex. Shoulder

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Bones:

Long

Long, cylindrical shafr and irregular or widended ends

Ex. Humerus, Femur

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Bones:

Short

Similar in length and width and appear somewhat cubical in shape

Ex. Carpals of hand, tarsals of feet

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Bones:

Flat

Thin, protective

Ex. Scapulae, patella

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Bones:

Irregular

Unique shape and function

Ex. Vertabrea

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Bones:

Sesamoid

Small often round bones embedded in a joint capsule or found in locations where a tendon passes over a joint

Patella