Zoology Chapters 1-5

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1

Biodiversity

<p>The variety and variability of living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they occur</p> <!--EndFragment-->

2

species

-Sexually – reproducing forms: an ongoing group of interbreeding natural population reproductively isolated from all other groups

-Asexually – group of organisms similar to each other but recognizable different from other groups.

3

biogeography

the study of life’s geographic distribution

4

interspecific diversity

Variety in a given area as measured by the different kinds of species

5

carrying capacity

The maximum number of living organisms that an environment can support

6

fitness

- A measure of the relative breeding success of an individual or genotype in a given population at a given time

7

taxonomy

The naming and classifying of organisms

8

intraspecific diversity

The differences that occur between members of the same species

9

mutation

A permanent change in the genetic makeup (DNA) of an animal

10

asymmetrical

– No symmetry

11

transverse section

A cross section, dividing an animal into anterior and posterior parts

12

bilateral symmetry

Body plan in which only one midsagittal section well result in two mirror images.

13

sagittal section

A plane of bisection along an animal’s longitudinal axis to make right and left half.

14

radial symmetry

has a Circle symmetry, like a spokes on a wheel

15

frontal section

A plane of bisection that divides an animal into dorsal and ventral portions

16

ventral/dorsal

- Dorsal: Back of an animal. Ventral: Front of an animal

17

homeostasis

– Balanced state. Conditions of an internal environment of animal is at equilibrium

18

anterior/posterior

Anterior: Torso to head. Posterior: Torso to legs.

19

autotrophic/heterotrophic

Auto: Makes it’s own food photosynthesis,

Hetero: Finds its food. From inorganic or organic elements within the environment

20

distal/proximal

Proximal – Closer to the middle of body, Distal – Farther away from the middle

21

carnivore

Eats animals

22

medial/lateral – Lateral:

Away from midline. Medial: Toward the midline

23

herbivore

– Eats only plants

24

omnivore

Eats both Plants and Animals

25

pseudopodia

Forms food vacuoles, cytoplasmic extensions of amoebas used in feeding.

26

Bioluminescence

Luciferin in presence of ATP and oxygen. Makes glow.

27

flagella

Tails/Hair like cell process that is usually used for locomotion

28

Stigma

The Photoreceptor in Euglena and other protist

29

endocytosis/exocytosis

Endo- process in which material passes through the plasma membrane

Exco- Where material from the cell passes through the plasma membrane.

30

trichocysts

A hair like defensive device expelled from the pellicle of certain ciliates

31

cilia

hair like extensions on certain cells.

32

sessile

Attached to a surface

33

mesohyl

Middle gelatinous layer in a sponge.

34

spongocoel

the open seal

35

cutaneous respiration

exchange in res[oratory gases though the body surface.

36

ostia

The pores in which water pours into.

37

osculum

the top of the sponge

38

cnidocyte

The cell that houses the stinging cell of a jellyfish or other cnidarian

39

mesoglea

The gel like layer of a jellyfish that allows buoyancy

40

polyp

the attached, asexual stage of a cnidarian

41

nematocyst

A stinging apparatus of cnidarians

42

epidermis/ectoderm

– Epi- The outer layer of cell, Ectoderm- the inner layer of the cell.

43

Medusa

jellyfishlike shape and are the sexual stage in cniardian life cycle

44

nerve net

Nervous system of cnidarians consisting of a diffuse network of nerve cells

45

gastrodermis/endoderm

to transport nutrient and discharge gametes

46

coral bleaching

Colonial reef-building all in shallow waters –depends on zooxanthellae

Coral diseases can wipe out entire colonies

47

Statocyst

Allows animals to swim against the current

48

gastrovascular cavity-

Gas exchange and digestion

49

mutualism

Both parties of organisms benefit from each other

50

ocelli

Little eyes on the nervous system

51

sessile

Attached to the surface