Philosophy 105 Test 1

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1

Theory of Knowledge

the branch of philosophy that inquires into the nature and the possibility of knowledge. It deals also with the scope and limits of human knowledge, and with how it's acquired and possessed.

2

Knowledge

not the same as a belief or opinion.

3

Philosophy

and intellectual activity can be variously defined depending on whether the emphasis is placed on its method, its subject matter or its purpose.

4

cosmos

world, universe

5

Wittengenstein, Ludwig

studied engineering in Berlin and Manchester, became interested in the philosophical foundations of mathematics. Developed the theory of language and logic.

6

Polis

a city-state in Ancient Greece.

7

Truth

the truth in which philosophers are chiefly interested is an attribute of beliefs, opinions, theories, doctrines, statements, etc.

8

Science

reserved for knowledge of what is necessarily the case. Locke argues that our knowledge of the physical world is experimental but not scientific.

9

Philosophy tests the most fundamental:

beliefs, values, and convictions.

10

Atman

Basic concept in Hinduism, the universal self-identical with the eternal core of the personality that after death other transmigrates to a new life.

11

Mathematical logic

branch of philosophy of mathematics that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics.

12

Epistemology

theory of knowledge; the branch of philosophy that inquires into the nature and the possibility of knowledge.

13

Pythagoras

was an early Greek philosopher. He believed in metempsychosis but didn't write anything so its hard to determine what his actual philosophical beliefs are

14

Aristotle

produced the most thoroghing and powerful philosophical system of antiquity

15

Socrates

Western philosopher. called 'philosophy down from heaven,' turning it away from theories about nature towards inquiry into ethics.

16

Metaphysics

'what lies beyond nature'

17

Ontology

inquiry into, or theory of, being qua being. This is central subject matter of Aristotle's Metaphysics was coined on the early 17th century to avoid some of the ambiguities of metaphysics

18

Democritus

ancient Greek philosopher of Abdera, who developed atomism as a major philosophical theory

19

Attitude/Belief

two persons may agree on all the relevant facts, and yet have a genuine disagreement when evaluating them.

20

Plato

the first great systematic philosopher of the western tradition, plato belonged to an aristocratic family in Athens. Follower of Socrates

21

Nomos

custom, convention, law, rule.

22

The republic

written by plato concerning the definition of justice the order and character of the city-state and the just of this man

23

Socrates

of Athens. Wrote nothing, his followers, wrote about him, best philosophers.

24

Natural law

two senses can be distinguished. A rule of conduct a general command, permission of prohibition, or general statement assigning rights or obligations

25

skepticism

the view that nothing can be known with certainty: that at best there can only be some private probable opinion.