carbohydrates

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1

what are Carbohydrates

-sugars & starches

-composed of carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen

-major source of energy for most people

readily a vialaible and affordable

-primary source of energy of all cells being converted into GLUCOSE

2

What are some types of carbohydrates

-sugars 4cal/gram

-starches 4cal/gram

-fibers 0cal/gram

3

what are function of carbohydrates

1)converted to glucose for energy

2)in excess, stored as fat

3)required for oxidation of fats

4)spares protein

4

what are function of carbohydrates

1)can be made into non-essential amino acids in the liver

2)fibers help prevent lipids from being absorbed

3)fiber encourages growth of bacteria in the large intestine (synthesize vitamin K &B)

5

Recommended daily intake

-110-1200 calories based on a 2000 cal diet

-55-60% of the total cal/day

-45-50% from simple and complex carbs (fruits, vegetables, grains)

6

Recommended daily intake

-10%or less from added sugars

-160 grams total

-25-38 grams should be fiber

7

average intake of Americans

total carbs:

MEN 200-330 grams/day

WOMEN 180-230

fiber 15 grams per day

8

Asia and Africa intake

-80-90% of digest consists of carbs

-deficient in other nutrients

9

added sugars

-no more than 11tsp per day

-we consume about 30 tsp per/day

10

My Pyramid Recommendations

1)grains 6-11 servings

2) fruist 2-3 servings

3) vegetables 3-5 servings

11

most carbs come from

plants

12

one exception pertaining carbs is:

the sugar LACTOSE is found in the milk of mammals

13

Carbohydrates are the result of

photosynthesis

14

Carbon dioxide + water-->

glucose + oxygen

15

must have CHLOROPHYLL and SUNLIGHT

in order for photosynthesis to occur

16

simple carbs

natural foods that contain simple carbs low in calories:

ex: apple, oranges, peaches, pears, strawberries

17

simple carbs

processed foods that contain a LARGE AMOUNT of simple carbs:

ex: jam, candy, fudge, gum, table sugar, soft drinks, pudding

18

monosaccharides

-contain 2-6 carbon

-three most significant monosaccharides in nutrition

*glucose, fructose, galactose

-all are hexose ring-shape

19

blood glucose regulation

goal of carbohydrate metabolism

-to break sugars and starches down to glucose

glucose can be absorbed directly into the blood stream

normal fasting blood sugar level 70-120 mg/dy

20

HYPOGLYCEMIA

-blood glucose level below 70 mg/dy

* symptoms include mental confusion, blurred vision, weakness, shakiness, sweating and anger

21

GLUCOSE

-naturally found in fruits, such as grapes, oranges

-found in corn and honey

22

MONOSACCHARIDES---GLUCOSE

DEXTROSE OR CORN SUGAR

glucose---the type of sugar used by the body, the only sugar transported by the bloodstream

-glucose is absorbed without further digestion

23

hyperglycemia

-blood glucose level above 120 mg/day

*symptoms may be the same as those for hypoglycemia

24

pancreas

main organ for regulation of blood glucose level

25

HIgh blood glucose

-pancreas release insulin

-helps transport glucose into the cells for energy or storage (glycogen)

-blood glucose level will decrease

26

Low blood glucose

-pancreas releases the hormone GLUCAGON

-stimulates the liver to break down glucagon into glucose

-blood glucose level will rise

27

MONOSACCHARIDES----FRUCTOSE

-LEVULOSE

-six carbon ring structure-converted to glucose by the body

-found in fruits, veggies, corn syrup, honey

-the sweetest of the monosaccharides

28

MONOSACCHARIDES---GALACTOSE

-six carbon rin structure

-a product of lactose digestion from milk

-rarely found free in nature

-found only as a product of lactose hydrolysis

29

DISACCHARIDES

-defined as a 2 monosaccharides joined together

-three types and important to humans

*sucrose

*lactose

*maltose

30

DISACCHARIDES---SUCROSE

-condensation reaction joins the 2 molecules together and results in the production of 1 molecule of water

-fruits, veggies, sugar cane, sufar beet, maple sugar, molasses

-it cannot be metabolized by the body until it is broken down into its component parts of glucose and fructose

-glucose can be absorbed directly

-fructose is transported to the liver and then converted to glucose

31

HYDROLYSIS REACTION

the chemical reaction that splits a disaccharide into its 2 monosaccharide by the addition of water

32

sucrose + water =

glucose + fructose

33

DISACCHARIDE----LACTOSE

-1 glucose + 1 galactose = 1 lactose + water

-milk and milk products

34

lactose intolerance

-inability to digest lactose dut to reduced amount of lactase

-symptoms*abdominal discomfort, diarrhea

ex use lact-aid, prodive, lactase

35

DIASACCHARIDE---MALTOSE

1 glucose + 1 glucose = maltose + 1 water

-aka Malt sugar

-not consumed in foods directly

-a product of starch digestion

-found in bread making and beer

36

COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES

-A polysaccharides consisting of long chains of glucose molecules

37

POLYSACCHARIDES----COMPLEX CARBS

-many glucose molecules linked together

-minimum of 10 units

-could have hundreds or thousands of units

-# of units determines the type of starch

-take longer to digest

-carb loading

38

3 forms of complex carbs

-starchs

-glycogen

-fiber

39

STARCH

-most food sources of complex carbs are in the form of starch

includes:*grains, legumes, peas, beans, potatoes, pasta, breads

40

GLYCOGEN

-the storage form of glucose in humans and animals

- made in the liver from excess glucose in the blood stream

-stored in the liver and in the muscle

-the amount of glycogen stored is actually some what small

********around 1200-1800 cal

-after glycogen stores are filled

********excess glucose is stored as fat

41

FIBER

-complex carbs that cannot be digested by human digestive system

-not absorbed---contains no calories

-recommend fiber intake 25-38 grams per day

-function to retain, water and speed up transit time through intestinal tract by increasing peristalsis

42

FIBER

dietary fiber

insoluble fiber (roughage)

-remains of plant cell walls (cellulose)

43

FIBER

functional fiber

-added during manufacture process

-high fiber diet requires high intake of water

-addition of fiber to the diet should be done slowly over time to prevent a gastric distress

-whole grains lettuce, root veggies, legumes, popcorn, apples, bran

44

FIBER BENEFITS

-helps control absorption of glucose

-helps regulates blood sugar diabetics

-helps control absorption of lipids

****reduces cholesterol levels

-faster transit time

****reduces cancer risk

45

digestion of carbohydrates

-complete within 1-4hrs, then only indigestible carbs remain in the intestine

46

digestion of carbohydrates

1):

-the mouth

**mechanical---chewing

***chemical----amylase in saliva begins to breakdown starch

47

digestions of carbohydrates

2):

-stomach

**mechanical---mixining

***chemical---enzymes added HCl

*******************lowers Ph

48

digestion of carbohydrates

3):

-small intestine

**chemical---enxymes convert disaccharide into monosaccharide

***most absorption occurs here

49

digestion of carbohydrates

4):

-liver

**Galactose and fructose

*********converted into glucose

***glucose released into bloodstream

50

digestion of carbohydrates

5):

-large intestine

**understand carbs(fiber)

***water reabsorbed

51

CARB METABOLISM

-glucose molecules enter cell

-Glycolysis=1 glucose broken into 2 pyruvate within the cytoplasm

-Krebs cycle=Acetyl CoA enters cycle: NADH, FADH, and ATP are form (mitochondria)

[] lipids and proteins also feed into the krebs cycle, but without carbs, the system malfunctions

52

net results of carbohydrate metabolism:

Carbon dioixde-- leaves body via respiration

water--leabes body through elimination

energy (ATP)--used by the body

53

LOW CARB DIET

-short term effect HYPOGLYCEMIA

-limiting carbs forces the body to use fat for energy

-*****leads to increase in production of ketones

54

KETONES

(ketosis)

acid by product of fat metabolism

**symptoms-tiredness, headaches, confusion, ab pain, ect.

55

very low carb diet

kerb cycle cannot function properly

-fats and proteins not metabolized efficiently

-leads to deficiency of B vitamins, iron, and fiber

56

myths about carbs

1)carbs cause obesity

*excess calorie cause obesity

2)carbs cause dental caries

**increase the caries risk, but dental caries is multfuntion

3)carbs cause diabetes

***lack of insulin or inability to use insulin causes diabetes

4)carbs cause hyperactivity

****uproven

57

SUCROSE AND ITS ALTERNATIVES

sucrose = -->1 glucose and 1 fructos

-no nutritive quality

-not an "acquired taste" studies have shown infants desire sucrose

-increase risk for dental caries

***eliminating sucrose from the diet

58

ALTERNATE SWEETNERS

Classified by chemical structure

1)sugar alcohol

2)protein artificial sweeteners

59

SUGAR ALCOHOL

-natural and /or artificial manufactured substances

-chemically different from monsaccharides and disaccharides

-taste sweet

-may have laxative effect in large quantities

-about same amount of sweeteners as glucose

60

SUGAR ALCOHOL

Provide 4 cal/gm

1)xylitol

2)sorbital

3)mannitol

61

SUGAR ALCOHOL

- non-cariogenic not fermented by oral bacteria

-may contribute to remineralization of enamel

-present in sugar-free gums and candies (not calorie-free)

62

XYLITOL

-anticariogenic:

*oral bacteria lack the enzymes needed to ferment it

**ph does not become more acidic

-antimicrobial

***inhibit growth of strep mutans

63

ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS

-consumptions of low- calorie sweeteners is rising rapidly

-proteins --not carbs

1) saccharine --sweet' n low

*****oldest

*****non caloric

***600x sweetener than sucrose

64

ARTIFICIAL SWEENTERS

2) aspartame

* nutrasweet/ equal

**non-caloric

***linked to seizures

****200 times sweeter than sucrose

****metabolized to phenyalanine (an amino acid)

-->cannot be used by phenylketonurics

65

ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS

3) sucralose--splenda

non-caloric

600x sweeter than sucrose

no known side effects

heat stabile

66

ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS

4)acesulfame K

non-caloric

200x sweeter than sucrose

heat stabile (baked goods)

67

ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS

5)Stevia-truvia

non-caloric

300x sweeter than sucrose

derived from a plant

used for decades in Japan, Korea, Brazil