ENERGY

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created 5 years ago by aniedz
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1

what is the process of digestion?

1)eat

2)digest-mechanical, chemical

3)absorb-microvilli in small intestine,portal circulation, lymphatic circulation

4)metabolize-occurs inside the cell in the mitochondria

2

metabolism converts nutrients into:

1)energy

2)body structure

3)waste

3

energy yielding nutrients

1)carbohydrates 4cal/gm

2) fats 9cal/gm

3) protein 4cal/gm

4

energy yielding substance

alcohol 7cal/gm

-considered a drug or toxin

-contains no nutrients

-can interfere with transport, activation, catabolism & storage of almost every nutrient

-metabolized by liver instead of fat-resutls in fatty deposits in the liver

5

what are non-yielding nutrients

1)vitamins

2)minerals

3)water

6

how many cal/gm are in vitamin, mineral, water?

zero

7

Metabolic pathway CATABOLIC

releases energy, breaking nutrients down into smaller components

8

Metabolic pathway ANABOLIC

uses energy, building larger components from smaller ones

9

metabolism converts nutrients into:

1)energy (catabolic pathway)

2)body structure (anabolic pathway)

3)wastes

10

catabolism and anabolism

are continuously occurring reactions in the body

11

health catabolism and anabolism

are in equilibrium

12

ration of catabolism and anabolism

changes during growth, pregnancy, illness

13

nutrients that can be absorbed without further catabolism

*carbohydrates

*proteins

*fats

14

Final products of CATABOLISM

CARBOHYDRATES, FATS-->

carbon dioxide, water energy

15

Final products of CATABOLISM

PROTEIN--->

nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water, energy

16

catabolism occurs in

the mitochondria via series of chemical reactions known as Krebs cycle

17

Acetyl CoA

is based on production of an intermediate product

18

Acetyl Co a is further metabolized into?

the final product ATP

19

NADH & FADH are also

intermediate produced in the krebs cycle

20

NADH & FADH also enters the

electron transport chain and then are also converted to ATP

21

the body prefers to use

carbohydrates for energy

2nd choice FAT

3rd choice PROTEIN

22

nutrients sources that pro due acetyl CoA

1)carbs-->glucose

2)protein-->amino acids

3)fat-->fatty acids

23

Carbs-->glucose

2 pyruvate-->Acetyl CoA

24

protein-->amino acids

pyruvate-->Acetyl CoA

25

fat-->fatty acids

Acetyl CoA

26

Acetyl CoA feeds

into the krebs cycle that produces ATP

27

glycolysis

the process by which 1 glucose molecule is broken down into 2 pyruvate molecules

28

glycolysis can only

occur in the presence of oxygen and in the cytoplasm of the cell

29

1glucose-->2 pyruvate

+2 ATP +2 (NADH+H)

30

carbohydrate metabolism

each pyruvate

is converted into 1 Acetyl CoA

31

Carbohydrate metabolism

Acetyl CoA enters the krebs cycle

which produces NADH, FADH, & ATP

32

Carbohydrate metabolism

NADH & FADH enter

the electron transport system to produce ATP

33

krebs cycle OCCURS

in the mitochondria of the cell, and can only function in the presence of oxygen

34

each "turn" through krebs cycle

produces NADH &FADH &ATP

35

vitamins and minerals

require to activate the enzymes needed for the krebs cycle to function

36

Coenzymes

require vitamins to be activated

ex: coenzyme A-requires niacin, riboflavin (NADH & FADH)

37

Cofactor

needs a mineral to be activated

38

NADH & FADH produced in the

krebs cycle enter the electron transport chain and are converted into ATP

-aka RESPIRATION

-occurs in mitochondria

39

net result of energy production:

(glycolysis & krebs cycle & ETS:)

1 glucose yields 36 ATP

40

Where is the energy?

-it is packaged as ATP

- high-energy bonds attach the phosphate groups

-ATP can be transported

- when high-energy phosphate bonds are broken, energy is released

41

breaking phosphate bonds

releases energy

42

adding phosphate bonds

require energy

43

krebs cycle produce

ATP

44

anabolic process

-builds larger components from smaller ones

-nutrients are reassembled depending on need (ex:building muscle, bone, etc.)

-requires energy

-involved in growth of tissue and production of hormones

45

Hormones

chemicals made by a group of cells that stimulate or retard the function of other cells

-usually affect growth and production of secrections

(ex: estrogen, growth hormone, antidiuretic)

46

what are some types of energy?

1)electrical-- for brain and nervous system

2)mechanical--for muscle

3)thermal--for body heat

4)chemical--for synthesis of new compounds

47

energy needs are calculated

in terms of calories

48

calorie=

unit of energy; unit of heat

49

how much energy does your body require to function optimally?

-basal metabolic rate: 65-70% of your daily energy needs

-voluntary activity- work&play muscle activity

-TEF (thermic effect of food)7-13% of your daily energy needs

50

BMR (basal metabolic rate)

amount of energy required for involuntary physiological function such as breathing, blood circulation, body temp, and maintaining muscle tone

-recorded in post abortive state(no food for 12-15 hrs digestion and absorption required energy

51

BMR is lowest

when patient is lying down, awake, rested, and relaxed and not having eaten for 12-15hrs

52

the functions of the major organs

heart, liver, stomach account for 75% of the BMR

53

If your daily energy need is 2000 calories

1200-1500 are needed to satisfy your basal metabolic rate

54

calculating BMR

a guideline for finding BMR for an adult:

ideal wt lbs x10-11

ex. ideal wt -130lbs

130 x10=1300

130 x11=1430

BMR=1300-1430 calories

55

what are factors affecting BMR?

sleep-10% less energy needed after sleeping because of muscle relaxation

age-highest from age 0-2 due to rapid growth rate

It lower, then higher again at puberty

-then it gradually decreses throughout life (2% every year)

56

what are factor affecting BMR?

pregnancy- increases by 15%, breastfeeding increases by 40%

surface area- tall, thin people have a higher BMR than short, round people of the same weight

health-illness can increase and decrease BMR

57

what are factors affecting BMR?

lean body mass- muscle need more energy that fat or bone

temperature- body temp. BMR increases when there is a fever

ex.BMR is slightly higher in cooler climates

fasting and starvation- decreases BMR due to decreased muscle mass and adaptive response

58

what are factors affecting BMR?

endocrine glands-

A)THYROXINE- has greatest affect on a rate of metabolism

-comes from thyroid gland in the neck

-low thyroxine leads to decreased BMR and weight increases

-thyroid problems are rarely the cause of obesity

59

what are factors affecting BMR?

endocrine glands-

B)epinephrine- causes stimulation which causes a temporary rise in BMR

-comes from adrenal glands that are assisted with the kidneys "STRESS"

60

ENERGY EXPANDED IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

EEPA

-any body movement produced by muscles that result in energy expenditure

-the oat variable component in terms of actual calories needed

-based on lifestyle

-goal 2 1/2 hrs week

61

TEF thermic effect of food

-the energy the body uses to process metabolize, transport and store food

-accounts for very little of the actual energy requirements 7-13%

62

what kinds of foods can increase thermic effect?

-nicotine

-caffeine

-stress

-exercise

63

energy balance occurs

when calories taken in=energy expanded

-wt remains stable

-wt loss and wt gain--adaptive mechanisms

-large variations are well tolerated(less fragile)

64

positive energy balance

-more calories consumed than burned

-leads to wt gain

65

negative energy balance

-more calories burned that consumed

-leads to wt loss