Human Anatomy Lab Practical Exercises 1,2,3,4, and 5

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1

Standard Anatomical Position

Standing erect, feet flat, head facing forward, arms to the side, palms facing forward with the thumbs towards the outside

2

Superior

Upwards, toward the head

3

Inferior

Downwards

4

Anterior

Towards the front

5

Posterior

Toward the back

6

Supine

Laying on your back, face upward

7

Prone

Laying on your front

8

Cranial

Closer toward the head

9

Caudal

Closer toward the tail

10

Dorsal

backside

11

Ventral

frontside

12

Proximal

Nearer to the trunk

13

Distal

Further from the trunk

14

Long axis

Imaginary straight line that goes down the center of the body in the median plane

15

Sagittal

Longitudinal plane that separates the left and the right side

16

Mid-sagittal

Sagittal plane that's along the midline

17

Para-sagittal

Sagittal plane that divides the left and right in unequal parts (to either side of the midline)

18

Frontal

Longitudinal plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts

19

Coronal

Another name for frontal plane

20

Transverse

Runs horizontally, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts

21

Cross Section

When organs are sectioned along the transverse plane, they section is commonly called a cross section.

22

Oblique

Cut at a diagnal

23

Abdominal

Pertaining to the anterior trunk region inferior to the ribs

24

Acromial

Pertaining to the point of the shoulder

25

Antebrachial

Pertaining to the forearm

26

Antecubital

Pertaining to the anterior surface of the elbow

27

Axillary

Pertaining to the armpit

28

Brachial

Pertaining to the arm

29

Buccal

Pertaining to the cheek

30

Carpal

Pertaining to the wrist

31

Cephalic

Pertaining to the head

32

Cervical

Pertaining to the neck region

33

Coxal

Pertaining to the hip

34

Crural

Pertaining to the leg

35

Digital

Pertaining to the fingers or toes

36

Femoral

Pertaining to the thigh

37

Fibular

Pertaining to the side of the leg

38

Peroneal

Another name for fibular

Pertaining to the side of the leg

39

Frontal

Pertaining to the forehead

40

Hallux

Pertaining to the great toe

41

Inguinal

Pertaining to the groin

42

Mammary

Pertaining to the breast

43

Manus

Pertaining to the hand

44

Mental

Pertaining to the chin

45

Nasal

Pertaining to the nose

46

Oral

Pertaining to the mouth

47

Orbital

Pertaining to the bony eye socket (orbit)

48

Palmar

Pertaining to the palm of the hand

49

Patellar

Pertaining to the anterior knee (kneecap) region

50

Pedal

Pertaining to the foot

51

Pelvic

Pertaining to the pelvis region

52

Pollex

Pertaining to the thumb

53

Pubic

Pertaining to the genital region

54

Sternal

Pertaining to the region of the breastbone

55

Tarsal

Pertaining to the ankle

56

Thoracic

Pertaining to the chest

57

Umbilical

Pertaining to the naval

58

Occipital

Pertaining to the posterior aspect of the head or base of the skull

59

Axial

Relating to the head, neck, and trunk

The axis of the body

60

Appendicular

Relating to limbs and their attachments to the axis

61

Calcaneal

Pertaining to the heal of the foot

62

Olecranal

Pertaining to the posterior of the elbow

63

Dorsum/Dorsal

Pertaining to the back

64

Gluteal

Pertaining to the buttocks or rump

65

Lumbar

Pertaining to the area of the back between the ribs and hips; the loin

66

Otic/Auricular

Pertaining to the ear

67

Perineal

Pertaining to the region between the anus and external genitalia

68

Plantar

Pertaining to the sole of the foot

69

Popliteal

Pertaining to the back of the knee

70

Sacral

Pertaining to the region between the hips (overlying the sacrum)

71

Scapular

Pertaining to the scapula or shoulder blade area

72

Sural

Pertaining to the calf or posterior surface of the leg

73

Vertebral

Pertaining to the area of the spinal column

74

Lower Extremity

Thigh + leg + foot

(Latin) femur + crus + pes

75

Thorax, Back, and Abdomen

Ribcage, back, and abdomen (below the diaphragm)

76

Upper Extremity

Arm + forearm + hand

(Latin) brachium + antebrachium + manus

77

Head and neck

Head and neck

78

Quadrants

Divides the abdominal surface into four equal regions

Right upper quadrant, right lower quadrant, left upper quadrant, left lower quadrant

79

Umbilical Region

The centermost region, which includes the umbilicus

80

Epigastric Region

Immediately superior to the umbilical region

Overlies most of the stomach

81

Hypogastric (Pubic) Region

Immediately inferior to the umbilical region

Encompass the pubic area

82

Iliac (Inguinal) Region

Lateral to the hypogastric region and overlying the superior parts of the hip bones

83

Lumbar Region

Between the ribs and the flaring portions of the hip bones

Lateral to the umbilical region

84

Hypochondriac Region

Flanking the epigastric region laterally and overlying the lower ribs

85

Stage

The platform the slide rests on while being viewed

86

Coarse Adjustment Knob

Used to focus the speciman

87

Fine Adjustment Knob

Used for precise focusing once coarse focusing has been completed

88

Substage Light or Mirror (Light Source)

Located in the base

Light passes directly upward through the microscope

89

Ocular (Eyepiece)

Observations are made through the ocular

90

Condenser

Small substrate lens that concentrates the light on the specimen

91

Cell Membrane (aka Plasmalemma or Plasma Membrane)

Separates cell contents from the surrounding environment

Separates the intercellular fluid from the extracellular fluid

92

Main structural building blocks of the plasma membrane

Phospholipids (fats) and globular protein molecules

Some of the externally facing proteins and lipids have sugar (carbohydrate) side chains attached to them that are important in cellular interactions

93

Function of the Plasma Membrane

1. Provides protective barrier for the cell

2. Determines what substances may enter or leave the cell and in what quantity

94

Selective Permeability

The plasma membrane determines what can enter the cell and what can not enter. The membrane also determines what can leave the cell and what can not leave.

95

Cytoplasm

Consists of the cell contents between the nucleus and the plasma membrane

96

The 2 Parts of Cytoplasm

1. Cytosol

2. Organelles

97

Function of the Cytoplasm

It is the major site of most activities carried out by the cell. Suspended in the cytosol, organelles are highly organized and carry out specific functions for the cell as a whole.

98

Cytosol

The fluid cytoplasmic material where the organelles are located

99

Organelles

Small structures in the cytosol which are highly organized and carry out specific functions for the cell as a whole

100

Nucleus

The control center of the cell

101

Functions of the Nucleus

1. Provides instructions for protein synthesis

2. DNA directs cell's activities

102

Nuclear Membrane (Nuclear Envelope)

Surrounds the nucleus by a double-layer porous membrane

103

Function of Nuclear Envelope (Nuclear Membrane)

Permits the passage of protein and RNA molecules

104

Nucleolus

"Little Nucleus"

- Center of the nucleus

- Contains parts of chromosomes

105

Function of the Nucleolus

Assembly site for ribosomal particals

106

Nucleoplasm

The protoplasm of the nucleus

107

Function of Nucleoplasm

Suspends and protects the nucleolus

108

Chromatin

The genetic material loosely dispersed throughout the nucleus in a threadlike form

109

Chromosomes

When the cell is in the process of dividing, the chromatic coils and condenses, forming dense, darkly staining redline bodies called chromosomes

1. Highest level of organization of a chromatid

2.1 chromosome has 2 chromatids

110

Ribosomes

Densely staining, roughly spherical bodies composed of RNA and protein

111

Function of Ribosomes

Protein synthesis

112

Endoplasmic Riticulum

Highly folded system of membranous tumbles and cisternae (sacs) that extends throughout the cytoplasm.

-Continuous with the nuclear envelope

-Studded with ribosomes (Rough ER)

113

Function of Rough Endoplasmic Riticulum

Tubules of the rough ER provide a storage area and transport of the proteins made on the ribosomes to other cell areas

External face synthesizes phospholipids and cholesterol

114

Function of Smooth Endoplasmic Riticulum

The site of steroid and lipid synthesis, lipid metabolism, and drug detoxification

115

Golgi Apparatus

A stack of flattened sacs with bulbous ends that is generally close to the nucleus

116

Function of the Golgi Apparatus

Plays a role in packaging proteins or other substances for export from the cell or incorporation into the plasma membrane and in packaging lysosomal enzymes

117

Mitochondria

Rod-shaped bodies with a double-membrane wall

-Inner membrane is thrown into folds, or cristae

-Powerhouse of the cell

118

Function of Mitochrondria

Contains enzymes that oxidize foodstuff's to produce cellular energy "ATP"

119

Centrioles (Centrosome)

Paired cylindrical bodies that lie at right angles to each other

-Close to the nucleus

120

Function of Centrioles (Centrosome)

Direct the formation of the mitotic spindle during cell division

Form the bases of cilia and flagella

121

Cytoskeleton

Cytoskeleton elements ratify throughout the cytoplasm forming an internal scaffolding called the cytoskeleton

122

Function of Cytoskeleton

Supports and moves substances within the cell

Function in intracellular transport and cell mobility, resist mechanical forces, help determine cell shape

123

Lysosomes

Various-sized membranous sacs containing digestive enzymes (acid hydrolases)

124

Function of Lysosomes

Function to digest worn-out cell organelles and foreign substances that enter the cell

Have the capacity of total cell destruction if ruptured

125

Peroxisome

Small lysosome-like membranous sacs containing oxidase enzymes that detoxify alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, and other harmful chemicals

126

Deltoid Region

Lateral aspect of the shoulder

127

Cubital Region

Anterior and Posterior of the Elbow

128

Simple Squamous Epithelium

Single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm

The simplest of the epithelia

129

Location of Simple Squamous Epithelium

1. Kidney glomeruli

2. Air sacs of lungs

3. Lining of heart, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels

4. Lining of ventral body cavity (serosae)

130

Function of Simple Squamous Epithelium

Allows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not important

Secretes lubricating substances in serosae

131

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

Single layer of cube-like cells with large, spherical central nuclei

132

Location of Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

1. Kidney tubules

2. Ducts and secretory ports of small glands

3. Ovary surface

133

Function of Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

Secretion and Absorbtion

134

Single Columnar Epithelium

Single layer of tall cells with round to oval nuclei

Some cells bear cilia

Layer may contain mucus-secreting unicellular glands (goblet cells)

135

Location of Simple Columnar Epithelium

1. Nonciliated type lines most of the digestive tract (stomach to anal canal), gall bladder, and excretory ducts of some glands

2. Ciliated variety lines small bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions of the uterus

136

Function of Simple Columnar Epithelium

1. Absorption

2. Secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances

3. Ciliated type propels mucus (or reproductive cells) by ciliary action

137

Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

Single layer of cells of differing heights, some not reaching the free surface

Nuclei seen at different levels

May contain mucus-secreting cells and bear cilia

138

Location of Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

1. Nonciliated type in male's sperm-carrying ducts and ducts of large glands

2. Ciliated variety lines the trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract

139

Function of Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

1. Secretion, particularly of mucus

2. Propulsion of mucus by ciliary action

140

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

1. Thick membrane composed of several layers

2. Basal cells are cubital or columnar and metabolically active

3. Surface cells are flattened (Squamous)

4. In the keratinized type, the surface cells are full of keratin and dead

5. Basal cells are active in mitosis and produce the cells of the more superficial layers

141

Location of Stratified Squamous Epithelium

1. Nonkeratinized type forms the moist linings of the esophagus, mouth, and vagina

2. Keratinized variety forms the epidermis of the skin, a dry membrane

142

Function of Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion

143

Stratified Columnar Epithelium

1. Several cell layers

2. Basal cells usually cuboidal

3. Superficial cells elongated and columnar

144

Location of Stratified Columnar Epithelium

1. Rare in the body

2. Small amounts in male urethra and in large ducts of smoke glands

145

Function of Stratified Columnar Epithelium

1. Protection

2. Secretion

146

Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium

Generally two layers of cube-like cells

147

Location of Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium

Largest ducts of sweat glands, mammary glands, and salivary glands

148

Function of Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium

Protection

149

Transitional Epithelium

1. Resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal

2. Basal cells are cuboidal or columnar

3. Surface cells dome shaped or squamous-like, depending on degree of organ stretch

4. Resembles flower

150

Location of Transitional Epithelium

Lines the urethra, urinary bladder, and part of the urethra

151

Function of Transitional Epithelium

Stretches readily and permits distention of urinary organ by contained urine

152

Loose Connective Tissue, Areolar

1. Gel-like matrix with all three fiber types

2. Cells, fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, and some white blood cells

153

Location of Loose Connective Tissue, Areolar

1. Widely distributed under epithelia of body. e.g., forms lamina propria of mucous membranes

2. Packages organs

3. Surrounds capillaries

154

Function of Loose Connective Tissue, Areolar

1. Wraps and cushions organs

2. Its macrophages phagocytize bacteria

3. Plays an important role in inflammation

4. Holds and conveys tissue fluid

155

Loose Connective Tissue, Adipose

1. Matrix as in areolar, but very sparse

2. Closely packed adipocytes, or fat cells, have nucleus pushed to the side by large fat droplets

156

Location Loose Connective Tissue, Adipose

1. Under skin

2. Around kidneys and eyeballs

3. Within abdomen

4. In breasts

157

Function of Loose Connective Tissue, Adipose

1. Provides reserve fuel

2. Insulates against heat loss

3. Supports and protects organs

158

Loose Connective Tissue, Reticular

1. Network of reticular fibers in a typical loose ground substance

2. Reticular cells lie on the network

159

Location of Loose Connective Tissue, Reticular

Lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen)

160

Function of Loose Connective Tissue, Reticular

Fibers form a soft internal skeleton (stroma) that supports other cell types, including white blood cells, mast cells, and macrophages

161

Dense Connective Tissue, Regular

1. Primarily parallel collagen fibers

2. A few elastic fibers

3. Major cell type is the fibroblast

162

Location of Dense Connective Tissue, Regular

Tendons, most ligaments, aponeuroses

163

Function of Dense Connective Tissue, Regular

1. Attaches muscles to bones or to muscles

2. Attaches bones to bones

3. Withstands great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction

164

Dense Connective Tissue, Elastic

Dense regular connective tissue containing a high proportion of elastic fibers

165

Location of Dense Connective Tissue, Elastic

1. Walls of large arteries

2. Within certain ligaments associated with vertebral column

3. Within the walls of bronchial tubes

166

Function of Dense Connective Tissue, Elastic

1. Allows recoil of tissue following stretching

2. Maintains pulsatile flow of blood through arteries

3. Aids passive recoil of lungs following inspiration

167

Dense Connective Tissue, Irregular

1. Primarily irregularly arranged collagen fibers

2. Some elastic fibers

3. Major cell type is fibroblast

168

Location of Dense Connective Tissue, Irregular

1. Fibrous capsules of organs and joints

2. Dermis of the skin

3. Submucosa of the digestive tract

169

Function of Dense Connective Tissue, Irregular

1. Able to withstand tension exerted in many directions

2. Provides structural strength

170

Cartilage: Hyaline

1. Amorphous but firm matrix

2. Collagen fibers form an imperceptible network

3. Chondroblasts produce the matrix and when mature (chondrocytes) lie in lacunae

171

Location of Cartilage: Hyaline

1. Forms most of the embryonic skeleton

2. Covers the ends of long bones in joint cavities

3. Forms costal cartilages of the ribs

4. Cartilages of the nose, trachea, and larynx

172

Function of Cartilage: Hyaline

1. Supports and reinforces

2. Has resilient cushioning properties

3. Resists compressive stress

173

Cartilage: Elastic

Similar to headline cartilage, but more elastic fibers in the matrix

174

Location of Cartilage: Elastic

1. Supports the external ear (pinna)

2. Epiglottis

175

Function of Cartilage: Elastic

Maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility

176

Cartilage: Fibrocartilage

1. Matrix similar to but less firm than that in hyaline cartilage

2. Thick collagen fibers predominate

177

Location of Cartilage: Fibrocartilage

1. Intervertebral discs

2. Pubic symphysis

3. Discs of knee joint

178

Function of Cartilage: Fibrocartilage

Tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock

179

Bones

1. Hard, calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers

2. Osteocytes lie in Lacunae

3. Very well vascularized

180

Location of Bones

Bones

181

Function of Bones

1. Bone supports and protects (by enclosing)

2. Provides levers for the muscles to act on

3. Stores calcium and other minerals and fat

4. Marrow inside bones is the site for blood cell formation (hematopoiesis)

182

Blood

Red and white blood cells in a fluid matrix (plasma)

183

Location of Blood

Contained within blood vessels

184

Function of Blood

Transport of respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes and other substances

185

Nervous Tissue

1. Neurons are branching cells

2. Cell processes that may be quite long extend from the nucleus-containing cell body

3. Also contributing to nervous tissue are nonirritable supporting cells

186

Location of Nervous Tissue

Brain, spinal cord, and nerves

187

Function of Nervous Tissue

Transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors and to effectors (muscles and glands) which control their activity

188

Skeletal Muscle

Long, cylindrical, multinucleate cells

Obvious striations

189

Location of Skeletal Muscle

In skeletal muscles attached to bones or occasionally to skin

190

Function of Skeletal Muscle

1. Voluntary movement

2. Locomotion

3. Manipulation of the environment

4. Facial expression

5. Voluntary control

191

Cardiac Muscle

Branching, striated, generally uninucleate cells that interdigitate at specialized junctions (intercalated discs)

192

Location of Cardiac Muscle

The walls of the heart

193

Function of Cardiac Muscle

1. As it contracts, it propels blood into the circulation

2. Involuntary control

194

Smooth Muscle

1. Spindle-shaped cells with central nuclei

2. No striations

3. Cells arranged closely to form sheets

195

Location of Smooth Muscle

Mostly in the walls of hollow organs

196

Function of Smooth Muscles

1. Propels substances or objects (foodstuffs, urine, a baby) along internal passageways

2. Involuntary control

197

Extracellular Matrix

Nonliving material between the cells

198

2 Components of the Matrix

1. Ground substance

2. Fibers

199

Ground Substance

Composed of interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins, and proteoglycans

May be liquid, semisolid, gel-like, or very hard

200

Epithelial Membrane

A simple organ consisting of an epithelial sheet bound to an underlying layer of connective tissue

201

Cutaneous Membrane

Is the skin, a dry membrane with a keratinizing epithelium

202

Mucous Membranes (Mucosae)

Composed of epithelial cells resting on a layer of loose connective tissue called lamina propria

Line open body cavities

203

Lamina Propria

The layer of loose connective tissue that epithelial cells rest on

204

Difference between Mucous and Mucus

Mucous - adjective describing the membrane type

Mucus - noun indicating the product of glands

205

Goblet Cells

Columnar epithelial cells with large mucus-containing vacuole (goblet) in their apical cytoplasm

206

Serous Membranes (Serosae)

Epithelial membranes that are composed of a layer of simple Squamous epithelium on a scant amount of areolar connective tissue

Line body cavities closed to the exterior

207

Serous membranes generally occur...

In twos and are actually continuous

208

Parietal Layer

Membrane that lines a body cavity

209

Visceral Layer

Membrane that covers the outside of the organs in the cavity

210

Synovial Membranes

Composed entirely of connective tissue

Line cavities surrounding joints, providing a smooth surface and secreting a lubricating fluid

Line bursae and tendon sheaths

211

Skin (Integument)

Considered an organ system because of its extent and complexity

212

Function of Skin

1. protection

2. Insulates and cushions the underlying body tissues and protects the entire body from mechanical damage, thermal damage, and bacterial invasion

3. Prevents water loss

4. Regulating heat loss

5. Mini-excretory system

]6. Synthesizes vitamin D

213

2 Regions of the Skin

1. Epidermis

2. dermis

214

Epidermis

Composed of epithelium

-Superficial to the dermis

A Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium consisting of four distinct cell types and four or five distinct layers

215

Dermis

Composed of connective tissue

-Deep to the Epidermis

-Varies in thickness

216

Hypodermis (Superficial Fascia)

(primary adipose tissue)

-Immediately deep to the dermis

-Not part of the skin

217

4 Cell Types of the Epidermis

1. Keratinocytes

2. Melanocytes

3. Epidermal dendritic cells (Langerhans cells)

4. Tactile (Merkel) cells

218

Keratinocytes

1. The most abundant epidermal cells

2. Function mainly to produce keratin fibrals

3. Tightly connected to each other by desmosomes

219

Keratin

A fibrous protein that gives the epidermis its durability and protective capabilities

220

Melanocytes

Spidery black cells that produce the brown-to-black pigment called melanin

221

Melanin

Pigment that provides a protective umbrella over the nuclei of the cells in the deeper epidermal layers shielding them from ultraviolet radiation

222

Epidermal Dendritic Cells

1. Also called Langerhans cells

2. play a role in immunity

223

Tactile (Merkel) Cells

Spiky hemispheres that, in conjunction with sensory nerve endings, form sensitive touch receptors called tactile or Merkel discs located at the epidermal-dermal junction

224

5 Layers of Epidermis

1. Stratum basale

2. Stratum spinosum

3. Stratum granulosum

4. Stratum lucidum

5. Stratum corneum

225

Stratum Basale

1. Constantly undergoing mitotic cell division to produce millions of new cells daily

2.Deepest epidermal layer

3. One row of actively mitotic stem cells

4. Some newly formed cells become part of the more superficial layers

226

Stratum Spinosum

1. Cells divide fairly rapidly in this layer, but less so than the basale layer

2. Immediately superficial to the basale layer

3. Several layers of keratinocytes united by desmosomes

4. Cells contain thick bundles of intermediate filaments made of pre-keratin

227

Stratum Granulosum

1. At the upper border of this layer, the cells are beginning to die

2. Three to fiber layers of flattened cells, organelles deteriorating

3. Cytoplasm full of lamellated granules (release lipids) and keratohyaline granules

4. Superficial to the spinsosum

228

Lamellated Granules

Contain a waterproofing glycolipid that is secreted into the extracellular space

229

Keratohyaline Granules

Combine with the intermediate filaments in the more superficial layers to form the keratin fibrils

230

Stratum Lucidum

A very thin translucent band of flattened dead keratinocytes with indistinct boundaries

-Not present in the regions of thin skin

-Clear layer

231

Stratum Corneum

1. Constantly rubbing off and being replace by division of deeper cells

2. Most superficial layer

3. 20-30 layers of dead cells represented only by flat membranous sacs filled with keratin

4. Glycolipid in extracellular space

5. Accounts for the bulk of epidermal thickness

232

2 Regions of the Dermis

1. Papillary Area

2. Reticular Area

233

Papillary Layer

1. The more superficial dermal region composed of areolar connective tissue

2. Very uneven

3. Has fingerlike projections from its superior surface (dermal papillae) which is attached to the epidermis above

4. Abundant capillary networks furnish nutrients for the epidermal layers and allow heat to radiate to the skin surface

5. Pain (free nerve endings) and touch receptors (Meissner's corpuscles in hairless skin) are found here

234

Reticular Layer

1. Deepest layer of skin

2. Composed of dense irregular connective tissue

3. Containers many arteries and veins, sweat and sebaceous glands, and pressure receptors (Pacinian corpuscles)

235

Nails

Hornlike derivatives of the epidermis

236

3 Accessory Organs of the Skin

1. Nails

2. Cutaneous glands

3. Hair

237

8 Parts of the Nail

1. Body

2. Free edge

3. Root

4. Nail folds

5. Eponychium

6. Nail bed

7. Nail matrix

8. Lunule

238

Body of Nail

The visible attached portion

239

Free Edge of Nail

The portion of the nail that grows out away from the body

240

Root of Nail

The part that is embedded in the skin and adheres to an epithelial nail bed

241

Nail Folds

Skin folds that overlap the borders of the nail

242

Eponychium of Nail

Thick proximal nail fold commonly called the cuticle

243

Nail Bed

Extension of the stratum basale beneath the nail

244

Nail Matrix

Thickened proximal part of the nail bed containing germinal cells responsible for nail growth

245

Lunule of Nail

The proximal region of the thickened nail matrix, which appears as a white crescent

246

Hair

Structure consisting a module, a central region surrounded first by the cortex and then by a protective cuticle

247

Root of Hair

Portion of the hair enclosed within the follicle

248

Shaft of Hair

Portion projecting from the scalp surface

249

Hair Bulb

A collection of well-nourished germinal epithelial cells at the basal end of the follicle

250

Follicle

Structure formed from both epidermal and dermal cells

251

Papilla

A small nipple of dermal tissue that protrudes into the hair bulb from the connective tissue sheath and provides nutrition to the growing hair

252

Arrector Pili Muscle

Small bands of smooth muscle cells connect each hair follicle to the papillary layer of the dermis

253

Sebum

1. Product of sebaceous glands

2. A mixture of oily substances and fragmented cells that acts as a lubricant to keep the skin soft and moist and keeps the hair from becoming brittle

254

Blackheads

An accumulation of dried sebum, bacteria, and melanin from epithelial cells in the oil duct

255

Acne

An active infection of the sebaceous glands

256

Eccrine Glands

1. Also called merocrine sweat glands

2. All over the body

3. Produce clear perspiration consisting primarily of water, salts (mostly NaCl), and urea

4. Under control of the nervous system

5. Important part of the body's heat-regulating apparatus

257

Apocrine Glands

1. Found predominately in the auxiliary and genital areas

2. Secrete a milky protein - and fat-rich substance (also containing water, salts, and urea) that is an excellent nutrient medium for the microorganisms typically found on the skin

258
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Loose connective tissue, adipose

259
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Blood

260
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Bone

261
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Cardiac muscle

262
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Loose connective tissue, areolar

263
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Dense connective tissue, elastic

264
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Dense connective tissue, elastic

265
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Dense connective tissue, regular

266
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Cartilage: elastic

267
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Fibrocartilage

268
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Cartilage: hyaline

269
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Dense connective tissue, irregular

270
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Stratified squamous epithelium

271
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Nervous tissue

272
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Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

273
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Dense connective tissue, reticular

274
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Simple columnar epithelium

275
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Simple cubital epithelium

276
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Simple squamous epithelium

277
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Skeletal muscle

278
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Smooth muscle

279
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Stratified cuboidal epithelium

280
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Transitional epithelium