Chapter 5: Biology

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1

HIERARCHIC SYSTEM OF ORGANIZATION

1. KINGDOM
2. PHYLUM
3. CLASS
4. ORDER
5. FAMILY
6. GENUS
7. SPECIES

2

CORE THEME IN BIOLOGY TODAY IS

THE IDEA OF EVOLUTION

3

CHARLES DARWIN FIRST INTRODUCED THE NOTION OF EVOLUTION

1859; IN HIS BOOK ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES, PROPOSED THAT CURRENT SPECIES AROSE FROM A PROCESS HE CALLED, DESCENT WITH MODIFICATION

4

SCIENCE PROCESS

1. HYPOTHESIS: STATEMENT OR EXPLANATION OF CERTAIN EVENTS OR HAPPENINGS.
2. EXPERIMENT: REPEATABLE PROCEDURE OF GATHERING DATA TO SUPPORT OR REFUTE THE HYPOTHESIS.
3. CONCLUSION: FINAL STEP.

5

WATER

1. MAKES LIFE POSSIBLE.
2. MOLECULE HAS TWO HYDROGEN ATOMS COVALENTLY BONDED TO ONE OXYGEN ATOM.
3. THE MOST SIGNIFICANT ASPECT OF WATER IS POLARITY OF ITS BONDS.

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POLAR NATURE OF WATER ALLOWS FOR?

HYDROGEN BONDING BETWEEN MOLECULES. THIS TYPE OF INTERMOLECULAR BONDING HAS SEVERAL RESULTING BENEFITS, FIRST IS WATER'S HIGH SPECIFIC HEAT.

7

THE SPECIFIC HEAT OF A MOLECULE IS

THE AMOUNT OF HEAT NECESSARY TO RAISE THE TEMPERATURE OF 1 GRAM OF THAT MOLECULE BY 1 DEGREE CELSIUS. WATER HAS A HIGH SPECIFIC HEAT VALUE, WHICH ALLOWS WATER TO RESIST SHIFTS IN TEMPERATURE. BENEFIT IS LARGE BODIES OF WATER TO STABILIZE CLIMATES.

8

HYDROGEN BONDING RESULTS IN

STRONG COHESIVE AND ADHESIVE PROPERTIES.

9

COHESION

IS THE ABILITY OF A MOLECULE TO STAY BONDED OR ATTRACTED TO ANOTHER MOLECULE OF THE SAME SUBSTANCE. EXAMPLE: HOW WATER RUNS TOGETHER ON A NEWLY WAXED CAR.

10

ADHESION

IS THE ABILITY OF WATER TO BOND TO OR ATTRACT OTHER MOLECULES TO SPREAD APART, RESULTING IN FLOATING. MOST MOLECULES IN SOLID FORM DO NOT FLOAT ON THE LIQUID FORM OF THE SAME SUBSTANCE.

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THE POLARITY OF WATER ALLOWS IT TO ACT AS A

VERSATILE SOLVENT; WATER CAN BE USED TO DISSOLVE A NUMBER OF DIFFERENT SUBSTANCES.

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MOST IMPORTANT MOLECULES ARE

CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS, PROTEINS, AND NUCLEIC ACIDS

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CARBOHYDRATES

1. LONG CHAINS , OR POLYMERS OF SUGARS.
2. MANY FUNCTIONS AND SERVE MANY PURPOSES MOST IMPORTANT ARE STORAGE, STRUCTURE, AND ENERGY.

14

LIPIDS

1. KNOWN AS FATS
2. SPECIFICALLY ARE FATTY ACIDS, PHOSPHOLIPIDS, AND STEROIDS.

15

FATTY ACIDS

1. GROUPED INTO TWO CATEGORIES: SATURATED FATS AND UNSATURATED.
2. SATURATED FATS: CONTAIN NO DOUBLE BONDS IN THEIR HYDROCARBON TAIL. (ARE SOLIDS)
3. UNSATURATED FATS: HAVE ONE OR MORE DOUBLE BONDS. (ARE LIQUID AT ROOM TEMPERATURE).
4. SATURATED FATS: CONSIDERED DETRIMENTAL, AND CARDIOVASCULAR PROBLEMS ARE LIKELY WITH DIETS THAT CONTAIN HIGH QUANTITIES OF SATURATED FATS.

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PHOSPHOLIPIDS

1. CONSIST OF TWO FATTY ACIDS OF VARYING LENGTH BONDED TO A PHOSPHATE GROUP.
2. PHOSPHATE GROUP IS CHARGED AND THEREFORE POLAR, WHEREAS HYDROCARBON TAIL OF THE FATTY ACID IS NON-POLAR. THIS QUALITY IS IMPORTANT IN THE FUNCTION OF CELLULAR MEMBRANES. (THIS COMBINATION CREATES A BARRIER THAT PROTECTS THE CELL.

17

STEROIDS

ARE COMPONENT OF MEMBRANES, BUT MORE IMPORTANT, MANY ARE PRECURSORS TO SIGNIFICANT HORMONES.

18

PROTEINS

1. MOST SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTOR TO CELLULAR FUNCTION.
2. POLYMERS OF 20 MOLECULES CALLED AMINO ACIDS.
3. COMPLEX AND CONSISTING OF SEVERAL STRUCTURE TYPES. LARGEST OF BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES
4.E.G. ENZYMES - ACT AS CATALYZE DIFFERENT REACTIONS OR PROCESSES, ALL CELLULAR FUNCTION IS CATALYZED BY SOME TYPE OF ENZYME.

19

NUCLEIC ACIDS

1. COMPONENTS OF THE MOLECULES OF INHERITANCE
2. DNA - DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID IS A UNIQUE MOLECULE SPECIFIC TO A PARTICULAR ORGANISM AND CONTAINS THE CODE NECESSARY FOR REPLICATION.
3. RNA - RIBONUCLEIC ACID IS USED TO TRANSFER AND A MESSENGER, IN MOST SPECIES, OF THE GENETIC CODE.

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METABOLISM

SUM OF ALL CHEMICAL REACTIONS THAT OCCUR IN ORGANISM.

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METABOLIC PATHWAYS

SERIES OF STEPS WHERE REACTIONS TAKE PLACE IN A CELL, PROGRESSING FROM A STANDPOINT OF HIGH ENERGY TO LOW ENERGY. ALL OF THE REACTIONS ARE CATALYZED BY THE USE OF ENZYMES.

22

THE CELL

1. FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF BIOLOGY
2. TWO TYPES: PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC
CELLS CONSIST OF MANY COMPONENTS, REFERRED TO AS ORGANELLES.

23

PROKARYOTIC CELLS

1. THOSE CONTAINING NO DEFINED NUCLEUS
2. A SERIES OF ORGANELLES THAT CARRY OUT THE FUNCTIONS OF THE CELL AS DIRECTED BY THE NUCLEUS.

24

EUKARYOTIC CELLS

1. HAVE A MEMBRANE ENCLOSED NUCLEUS AND A SERIES OF ORGANELLES THAT CARRY OUT THE FUNCTIONS OF THE CELL AS DIRECTED BY THE NUCLEUS.
2. IS THE MOST COMPLEX OF THE TWO CELLS.

25

ARE SEVERAL DIFFERENT __________ FUNCTIONING IN A CELL AT A GIVEN TIME.

ORGANELLES

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MAJOR ORGANELLE FUNCTIONING IN A CELL AT A GIVEN TIME (8)

NUCLEUS, RIBOSOMES, ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, GOLGI APPARATUS, LYSOSOMES, VACUOLES, MITOCHONDRIA AND CHLOROPLASTS, CELLULAR MEMBRANE

27

NUCLEUS

1. CONTAINS THE DNA OF THE CELL IN ORGANIZED MASSES CALLED "CHROMOSOMES".

28

CHROMOSOMES

CONTAIN ALL MATERIAL FOR THE REGENERATION OF THE CELL AS WELL AS ALL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE FUNCTION OF THE CELL. EVERY ORGANISM HAS A CHARACTERISTIC NUMBER OF CHROMOSOMES SPECIFIC TO THE PARTICULAR SPECIES.

29

RIBOSOMES

1. ARE ORGANELLES THAT READ THE RNA PRODUCED IN THE NUCLEUS AND TRANSLATE THE GENETIC INSTRUCTIONS TO PRODUCE PROTEINS.
2. CELLS HAVING HIGH RATE OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS - HAVE LARGE NUMBER OF RIBOSOMES.
3. 2 LOCATIONS: BOUND RIBOSOMES FOUND ATTACHED TO THE ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (er), AND FREE RIBOSOMES ARE THOSE FOUND IN THE CYTOPLASM. THE TWO ARE INTERCHANGEABLE AND HAVE IDENTICAL STRUCTURES, BUT HAVE SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT ROLES.

30

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

1. FOUND ATTACHED TO NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
2. TWO CONTINUOUS PARTS: ROUGH ER - COVERED WITH RIBOSOMES, RESPONSIBLE FOR PROTEIN SYNTHESIS AND MEMBRANE PRODUCTION. SMOOTH ER - LACKS RIBOSOMES, FUNCTIONS IN DETOXIFICATION AND METABOLISM OF MULTIPLE MOLECULES

31

GOLGI APPARATUS

PACKAGING, PROCESSING, AND SHIPPING ORGANELLE. FUNCTIONS TO TRANSPORT MATERIALS FROM THE ER THROUGHOUT THE CELL.

32

LYSOSOMES

INTRACELLULAR DIGESTION TAKES PLACE IN LYSOSOMES. PACKED WITH HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES, THE LYSOSOMES CAN HYDROLYZE PROTEINS, FATS, SUGARS AND NUCLEIC ACIDS.

33

VACUOLES

1. MEMBRANE ENCLOSED STRUCTURE, FUNCTIONS VARY ON CELL TYPE.
2. IN CELLS, PROCESS CALLED PHAGOCYTOSIS - UPTAKE OF FOOD THROUGH CELL MEMBRANE CREATING FOOD VACUOLE. IN PLANT CELLS - CENTRAL VACUOLE THAT FUNCTIONS IN STORAGE, WASTE DISPOSAL, PROTECTION, AND HYDROLYSIS.

34

MITOCHONDRIA AND CHLOROPLASTS

1. BATH PRODUCE CELL ENERGY.
2. MITOCHONDRIA - ARE FOUND IN MOST EUKARYOTIC CELLS ARE SITE OF RESPIRATION.
3. CHLOROPLASTS - ARE FOUND IN PLANTS AND ARE THE SITE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS.

35

CELLULAR MEMBRANE

1. MOST IMPORTANT; CONTRIBUTES TO PROTECTION, COMMUNICATION, AND PASSAGE OF SUBSTANCES INTO AND OUT OF CELL.
2. MEMBRANE CONSISTS OF BI-LAYER OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS WITH PROTEINS, CHOLESTEROL, AND GLYCOPROTEINS PEPPERED THROUGHOUT.