Microbiology (Part 1)
Are virus's alive or dead?
No one knows
What 4 things do living items have in common?
These do not have membrane surrounding their DNA and have no nucleus.
Prokaryotes lack what that are bound with phospholipid membranes?
Prokaryotes are considered what kind of structure?
Prokaryotes are comprised of what two things?
Bacteria and archaea
These have a membrane surrounding DNA, have a nucleus, and have membrane bound organelles.
Are eukaryotes smaller or larger?
Eukaryotes are more ???? than prokaryotes structure wise.
The Eukaryote family includes what?
Together, bacteria and archaea make up what?
What is the most numerous and diverse group of organisms?
Prokaryotes thrive in multiple places. Give examples.
Thermal hot springs
colons of animals
Cytoplasm of other prokaryote3s
basalt rocks below the earth's surface
Relatively few prokaryotes have what things that allow them to colonize humans and cause disease?
What is the correct way to write a bacteria?
Genus + Species
If on a computer its italicized but if not its underlined. the first letter is capitalized and the second is not
I.E,: Escherichia coli or Escherichia coli
This rule must be followed even when using abbreviations
What bacteria caused the black plague?
Scientists originally identified archaea as a distinct type of prokaryotes on the basis of what?
unique rRNA sequences
Cell walls of archaea are distinct from bacteria and are composed of a variety of compounds such as what?
Does archaea cause disease?
Not in animals or humans
Though most archaea live in moderate environmental conditions, they are widely known for being able to live in what?
This archaea uses only CO2, H and N to produce energy and live. they are usually responsible for the methane gas. They live in swamps, marshes, gut of cattle and termites.
Eukaryotic microbes include protozoa, fungi, algae, water molds, and slime molds that are both what?
Unicellular and multicellular
This eukaryotic parasite causes a diarrheal disease and infects both humans and animals. it has a protective outer shell and is very resistant to chlorine disinfection.
Fungi organisms like mold, mushrooms, and yeast have cell walls, that are typically composed of what?
A strong flexible nitrogenous polysaccharide called chitin
What is the main way that fungi differ from plants?
they lack chlorophyll and don't preform photosynthesis
This decomposes dead organisms and recycle their nutrients, assist plants in absorbing water and dissolved minerals and manufacture of foods and beverages.
Fungi produces antibiotics and mevinic acids which do what?
help reduce cholesterol
About what percent of fungi produces mycoses (fungal disease)?
This eukaryotic fungus causes superficial infections of the hair, skin, and nails. its the most common agent of fungal infections worldwide. Is very difficult to cure and is more commonly known as athletes foot.
In regards to viruses, are all pathogens cellular?
Many kinds of infections of humans, animals, and plants are caused by what kind of cellular agents?
These lack cell membranes, composed of only a few organic molecules, cannot carry out any metabolic pathway, can neither grow nor r3espond to the environment and cannot reproduce independently.
Viruses have two cellular states. what are they?
Extracellular and intracellular
Outside of a cell, in the extracellular state a virus is called what?
This is a protein coat called a capsid, surrounding a nucleic acid core. what is it?
Some virions have an envelope surrounding their capsid. what is this envelope made of?
A virus without its capsid exists soley as what but is still referred to as a virus.
Smallpox is caused by what virus?
Variola major virus
What are the symptoms of small pox?
headache and backache
rash with flat red sores
The first vaccine to protect against smallpox came from what?
Prion are different from any other infectious agent and NOT considered viruses in that it lacks what?
All known prion disease involve what?
fatal neurological degeneration
deposition of fibrils in the brain
the loss of brain matter