Microbiology (Part 1)

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1

Are virus's alive or dead?

No one knows

2

What 4 things do living items have in common?

Growth

Reproduction

Adaptation

Metabolism

3

These do not have membrane surrounding their DNA and have no nucleus.

Prokaryotes

4

Prokaryotes lack what that are bound with phospholipid membranes?

internal structures

5

Prokaryotes are considered what kind of structure?

Simple

6

Prokaryotes are comprised of what two things?

Bacteria and archaea

7

These have a membrane surrounding DNA, have a nucleus, and have membrane bound organelles.

Eukaryotes

8

Are eukaryotes smaller or larger?

Larger

9

Eukaryotes are more ???? than prokaryotes structure wise.

Complex

10

The Eukaryote family includes what?

Algae

Protozoa

Fungi

Animals

Plants

11

Together, bacteria and archaea make up what?

Prokaryote

12

What is the most numerous and diverse group of organisms?

Prokaryotes

13

Prokaryotes thrive in multiple places. Give examples.

Antarctic Glaciers

Thermal hot springs

colons of animals

Cytoplasm of other prokaryote3s

distilled water

disinfectant solution

basalt rocks below the earth's surface

14

Relatively few prokaryotes have what things that allow them to colonize humans and cause disease?

enzymes

toxins

cellular structures

15

What is the correct way to write a bacteria?

Genus + Species

If on a computer its italicized but if not its underlined. the first letter is capitalized and the second is not

I.E,: Escherichia coli or Escherichia coli

This rule must be followed even when using abbreviations

16

What bacteria caused the black plague?

Yersinia pestis

17

Scientists originally identified archaea as a distinct type of prokaryotes on the basis of what?

unique rRNA sequences

18

Cell walls of archaea are distinct from bacteria and are composed of a variety of compounds such as what?

proteins

glycoproteins

lipoproteins

polysaccharides

19

Does archaea cause disease?

Not in animals or humans

20

Though most archaea live in moderate environmental conditions, they are widely known for being able to live in what?

Extreme conditions

21

This archaea uses only CO2, H and N to produce energy and live. they are usually responsible for the methane gas. They live in swamps, marshes, gut of cattle and termites.

Methanococcus jannaschii

22

Eukaryotic microbes include protozoa, fungi, algae, water molds, and slime molds that are both what?

Unicellular and multicellular

23

This eukaryotic parasite causes a diarrheal disease and infects both humans and animals. it has a protective outer shell and is very resistant to chlorine disinfection.

Cryptosporidium

24

Fungi organisms like mold, mushrooms, and yeast have cell walls, that are typically composed of what?

A strong flexible nitrogenous polysaccharide called chitin

25

What is the main way that fungi differ from plants?

they lack chlorophyll and don't preform photosynthesis

26

This decomposes dead organisms and recycle their nutrients, assist plants in absorbing water and dissolved minerals and manufacture of foods and beverages.

Fungi

27

Fungi produces antibiotics and mevinic acids which do what?

help reduce cholesterol

28

About what percent of fungi produces mycoses (fungal disease)?

30%

29

This eukaryotic fungus causes superficial infections of the hair, skin, and nails. its the most common agent of fungal infections worldwide. Is very difficult to cure and is more commonly known as athletes foot.

Trichophyton rubrum

30

In regards to viruses, are all pathogens cellular?

No

31

Many kinds of infections of humans, animals, and plants are caused by what kind of cellular agents?

acellular agents

32

These lack cell membranes, composed of only a few organic molecules, cannot carry out any metabolic pathway, can neither grow nor r3espond to the environment and cannot reproduce independently.

Acellular viruses

33

Viruses have two cellular states. what are they?

Extracellular and intracellular

34

Outside of a cell, in the extracellular state a virus is called what?

virion

35

This is a protein coat called a capsid, surrounding a nucleic acid core. what is it?

A virion

36

Some virions have an envelope surrounding their capsid. what is this envelope made of?

phospholipid membrane

37

A virus without its capsid exists soley as what but is still referred to as a virus.

nucleic acid

38

Smallpox is caused by what virus?

Variola major virus

39

What are the symptoms of small pox?

flu-like

high fever

fatigue

headache and backache

rash with flat red sores

40

The first vaccine to protect against smallpox came from what?

cowpox

41

Prion are different from any other infectious agent and NOT considered viruses in that it lacks what?

nucleic acid

42

All known prion disease involve what?

fatal neurological degeneration

deposition of fibrils in the brain

the loss of brain matter