NLN study guide

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1

Cell theory

the cell is considered the basic unit of life

  • all cells arise from preexisting cells
  • cells can carry out the processes of life
  • organisms are made of cells that function together
2

Prokaryotes

single celled organisms such as bacteria

  • DNA to carry genetic code
  • do not have a nucleus
  • all have a cell wall
3

eukaryotes

multicellular organisms such as plants and animals

  • DNA to carry genetic code
  • have a nucleus
  • some have a cell wall
4

Nucleus of cell

responsible for the activities of the cell regarding DNA

5

Ribosomes of a cell

responsible for production of proteins

6

rough endoplasmic reticulum of a cell

has ribosomes attached to the outer surface.

produces proteins

7

smooth endoplasmic reticulum of a cell

does not have ribosomes attached

transports protein out of the cell

8

Golgi bodies of the cell

after modifying and packaging proteins and other macromolecules in the cell it takes on the process of exocytosis so that the materials can be secreted form the cell

9

Lysosomes of the cell

aka suicide sacs of the cell, involved in digestion of proteins and parts of cell that are no longer needed

10

Vacuoles of the cell

sacs within a cell used to house a range of materials for later use

11

Mitochondria of the cell

powerhouses of the cell because fo their ability to produce the energy needed for life by carrying out the process of aerobic respiration

12

Chloroplasts of a cell

present in plants, contain a substance called chlorophyll to carry out the process of photosynthesis

13

cytoskeleton

has a number of microtubule fibers to provide shape and structure to a cell

14

cilia/flagella of a cell

not present with in the cell. located outside the cell and allow the cell to move

15

cell membrane

not an organelle, lipid bilayer with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions

16

Cell wall

present in plant cells, the cellulose containing wall helps give the plant cell rigidity

17

diffusion

particles naturally move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

18

osmosis

when water diffuses across a memebrane

19

isotonic solution

the concentrations inside and outside the cell are the same

20

hypotonic solution

the solution outside the cell has a lower concentration of solutes than the solution inside the cell causing the cell to swell or burst

21

hypertonic solution

the outside solution has a higher concentration of solute than the cell. water leaves the cell to dilute outside solution causing the cell to shrink or shrivel

22

passive transport

transportation that occurs from a high concentration to a low concentration naturally and without any additional energy input

23

active transport

takes place when materials need to be moved from an area of low concentration to one of a higher concentration. because this works against the natural process, the cell uses energy for the transport

24

organic molecules

carbon based molecules,

include lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acid

25

inorganic molecules

without carbon molecules

include ions, iron, calcium, and water

26

carbohydrates

organic compounds that contain carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. major source of energy in the body

27

dehydration synthesis

formation of disaccharides and starches with the removal of water

28

hydrolysis

larger starches or polysaccharides have water added to them to break down into simple sugars use by cells

29

proteins

contain carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen. long chains of amino acids

30

peptide bond

an amine group and a carboxylic acid group bound together

31

Enzymes

examples of complex proteins that function to regulate the rate at which reactions occur. catalyst that lower the amount of energy it takes for a reaction to occur.

32

Lipids

made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. made from the dehydration synthesis of a glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acid molecules. fat. stored as an energy reserve

33

Nucleic acids

building blocks of DNA and RNA. contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen along with nitrogen and phosphorus atoms as well

34

adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

molecule that supplies energy. produced aerobically (require oxygen) or anaerobically (not requiring oxygen)

35

Glycolysis

anaerobic process that splits a 6 carbon glucose molecule into two 3-carbon pyruvic acid molecules. 2ATP molecules are needed but 4 ATP molecules are produced.

36

Fermentation

After glycolosis, pyruvic acid can be further used to carry out anaerobic processes.

37

aerobic respiration

after pyruvic acid is formed, the mitochondria of the cell work to convert acetyl - CoA with then enters the Krebs cycle

38

phtoshythesis

carried out in the chloroplasts of the plant cell. the light reaction of photosynthesis takes place in the grana of the chloroplast, whereas the dark reactions take place in the stroma of the chloroplast.

39

DNA

  • macromolecule in cells that codes for how amino acids form proteins
  • double stranded helix
  • hydrogen bonded
  • classified as purine or pyrimidines
40

Three forms of RNA

  1. mRNA= messenger RNA
  2. tRNA = Transfer RNA
  3. rRNA = Ribosomal RNA
41

mRNA function

copies DNA's genetic code via a process called transcription

42

tRNA function

compelments mRNA via an anticodon that corresponds to an amino acid that tRNA will carry

43

rRNA function

is found as part of ribosomes and helps in the formation of polypetides.

44

RNA

has nitrogen bases that match up to the nucleic acids for DNA.

RNA is not a double helix it exists as a single strand

45

Environmental factors that can alter or damage genetic material

  • radioactive isotopes
  • radiation
  • carcinogens
46

mitosis

the process by which most new cells are produced in eukaryotes. two new daughter cells are produced

47

meiosis

process by which cell division takes palace so that the sex cells, the sperm and egg, are produced

48

steps in mitosis

  1. interphase
  2. prophase
  3. metaphase
  4. anaphase
  5. telophase
49

interphase of mitosis

phase btw mitotic cycles, the cell is carrying on activities other than reproduction.

50

prophase of mitosis

chromosomes that replicated during interphase now become visible

51

metaphase of mitosis

with help from centrioles, asters and spindle fibers the chromatids line up near the equator of the cell

52

anaphase of mitosis

chromosomes move to the opposite poles of the cell. leaving 2 separate sets of identical chromosomes on opposite poles of the cell. Cytokineses, the division of the cytoplasm, begins

53

telophase of mitosis

begins with uncoiling of chromosomes as they begin to look like chromatin again. The cell forms 2 daughter cells as the nuclear membrane becomes visible again.

54

steps of meiosis

  1. prophase 1
  2. metaphase 1
  3. anaphase 1
  4. telophase 1
  5. prophase 2
  6. metaphase 2
  7. anaphase 2
  8. telophase 2
55

prophase 1 of meiosis

chromosomes replicate and produce 2 chromatids. pair s of chromatids pair up and create tetrad

56

metaphase 1

centrometers of the tetrads line up in the cell

57

anaphase 1

disjunction takes place and chromosomes separate

58

telophase 1

cytoplasm divides and 2 daughter cells are formed

59

prophase 2

spindles form to separate chromosomes. no replication occurs in this stage

60

metaphase 2

the double stranded chromosomes are lined up along the equator and become attached to spindles fibers

61

anaphase 2

2 chromatids separate and become single stranded chromosomes as they move to opposite sides of the cell wall

62

telophase 2

cells divide again forming 4 cells, each with haploid number of chromosomes