Which of the following bacteria is responsible for the most common bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States, usually accompanied by frequent bloody diarrhea?
A patient in urgent care clinic reports having frequent episodes of diarrhea with abdominal pain and fever for several days. the patient reports an allergy to shellfish. A recent bowel movement contains traces of blood. A fecal sample shows the presence of Gram-negative, curved motile, urease-negative bacteria. Which of the following bacteria is most likely responsible for the patients symptoms?
Shortly after returning from a trip to several continents, a young man experiences episodes of fever, chills, muscle aches, and headache that recur at irregular intervals. The young man reports carrying only a large backpack and commonly staying in hostels along the way while traveling. Which of these diseases is he likely to have?
louse-borne relapsing fever
The emerging disease known as anaplasmosis is transmitted by
Which of the following is the correct pairing of rickettsial pathogen and vector?
R prowazeki; louse
Transovarian transmission is a process in which
an infected female vector transmits the pathogen to the eggs forming in its ovaries.
Rickettsiosis is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, a pathogen that
infects the lining of blood vessels and leads to leaking of plasma into tissue.
Red mites (chiggers) spread _____ among both humans and rodents.
Rickettsia prowazekii is transmitted by
the human body louse Pediculus humanus
Which of the following statements regarding Ehrlichia is FALSE?
It usually causes a spotted rash similar to Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Epidemic typhus can recur many years after an initial episode; the recurrent disease is called
Which of the following diseases is considered an emerging disease because it was unknown before 1987?
human monocytic ehrlichiosis
Which of the following microorganisms have been referred to as energy parasites?
Endosomes filled with multiplying chlamydia are known as
Which of the following pairs is MISMATCHED?
elementary bodies; dormant noninfectious form
Which of the following is the cause of the STD lymphogranuloma venereum?
Which of the following is an intracellular parasite of humans that usually causes a mild pneumonia?
Among adults Chlamydia trachoma's is an STD, but among children who are not sexually active it can cause ocular infections which may be spread
by fecal contamination or respiratory droplets
The sexually transmitted invasive form of chlamydia
is caused by the LGV strain of Chlamydia trachomatis
Which of the following statements regarding trachoma is FALSE?
It is most often a disease of adults who suffer from sexually transmitted chlamydia
Sexually transmitted chlamydia is similar to infection with Yersinia pestis in that they both can produce
Which of the following pairs is MISMATCHED?
Chlamydia trachomatis; pneumonia
Which of the following is TRUE of spirochetes?
they are able to penetrate a hosts tissues
Which of the following is the correct sequence for stages of Ehrlichia development in infected host cells?
elementary body, initial body, morula
Which of the following is a zoonosis caused by a spirochete?
Treponema palladium can be transmitted
both through sexual intercourse and from an infected mother to her unborn child
Which of the following statements concerning the causative agent of syphilis is TRUE?
It is a large helically coiled bacterium motile by means of endoflagella.
The typical lesion of primary syphilis is
a painless reddened lesion called a chancre at the site of infection.
The Ixodes tick can become infected with Borrelia burgdorferi
either as a larva or a nymph
The signs and symptoms of infection with Helicobacter pylori are the result of
invasion by H. pylori into the mucosa of the stomach
What characteristic of Borrelia burgdorferi makes it an unusual bacterium?
It utilizes manganese instead of iron in its proteins and enzymes.
Leptospira interrogates gets its name from
the fact that one end of the spirochete is curved like a question mark
What characteristic does Vibrio share with Salmonella?
Both have O polysaccharide antigens
The most important virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae is
its ability to produce a potent exotoxin
A young woman who was recently hiking in the mountains and discovered a tick on her torso has a fever that came on quite suddenly. She has no rash, but she develops leukopenia. Which of the following diseases is she most likely to have contracted.
Which of the following causes pinta, a skin disease primarily of children, in which spirochetes are detectable in specimens from the lesions?
This patten of fever is most commonly seen with
Epidemic typhus, spread by lice, is caused by
The intracellular parasite ______ can infect mucous membranes in various organ systems of the body.
The bacterium ________ is a common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis contracted from contaminated food, especially poultry.
Parrot fever caused by ______ is usually a pneumonia like disease but can sometimes lead to hepatitis or endocarditis.
The STD characterized by three distinctly different symptomatic stages is the result of infection with
Treponema pallidum pallidum
Gastritis from infection of the stomach wall with ______ can cause inflammation leading to peptic ulcers.
A gastroenteritis which usually resolves in 72 hours is contracted from eating shellfish contaminated with
Infection with ______ produces symptoms similar to RMSF, except for the rash making it difficult to diagnose.
Wounds contaminated with Vibrio (cholera/ parahaemolyticus/ vulnificus) can lead to potentially fatal septicemia.
If the mother has (chlamydia/syphilis) at the time of birth, the pathogen can infect the newborn's eyes and may cause blindness.
The rash characteristic of RMSF starts on the (head/limbs/torso).
Rickettsia (prowazekii/ rickettsii/ typhi) is fatal to its vector within 2-3 weeks, preventing transovarian transmission.
Scrub typhus is transmitted to humans by mites infected with (Anaplasma/ Orientia/ Rickettsia).
A disease of birds that can be transmitted to humans is (campylobacteriosis/ lyme/ ornithosis).
The infectious form of chlamydia is the (elementary/ initial) body.
Major pandemics of severe diarrheal disease have been caused by Vibrio (cholerae/ parahaemolyticus/ vulnificus) for centuries.
The reservoir for Orientia tsutsugamushi is (humans/ mites/ rodents).
The characteristic lesion for tertiary syphilis is the presence of (gummas/ necrosis/ granulomas) in bones in nervous tissue or on the skin.
A nonverneral treponema disease transmitted by contaminated eating utensils and primarily affects children in Africa, Asia, and Australia is known as (bejel/ pinta/ yaws)
Borrelia burgdorferi is an unusual bacterium that lacks iron containing enzymes and proteins and causes (Brill-Zinser/Lyme/ RMSF) disease in humans.
Louse-borne relapsing fever is caused by a spirochete known as Borrelia (burgdorferi/ recurrentis/ species), which is capable of frequently changing its antigenic surface components.
Leptospira interrogans exits the body in (feces/ aerosols/ urine).
The normal habitat for Vibrio cholerae is (humans /animals/ water).