Chapter 14

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Microbiology Exam 3
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1

pathology

study of the disease

2

microrganisms in hospital

comprised host

chain of trasnmission

things that contribute to socomial infections

3

begin to fill mild signs of illness

what occurs during prodromal period

4

period of illness

when does the highest infection rate occur

5

how do focal infections occur

how do focal infections occur

6

socomial infections

8th leading cause of death

7

measles, chicken pox

ex: of contagious disease

8

commensalism

one organism benefits, other in unaffected

9

STI, common cold

ex: of communicable disease

10

both

prevalence uses old/new cases

11

endocritis

example of a subclinical disease

12

incidence

is incidence or prevelance normaly in smaller chunks of time

13

iron

what do bacteria need to grow in the blood

14

incidence

what is the indicator from the spread of disease

15

microrganisms in hospital

comprised host

chain of trasnmission

things that contribute to socomial infections

16

what are probiotics

live microbes applied or ingested to the body to exert a beneficial effect

17

common thing used in probiotics

lactobacillus

18

new

is incidence used for old/new cases

19

exceptions to koch's postulated

-some pathogens cause several disease conditions

-some only cause diseases in humans

-multiple organisms

-some pathogens cause multiple diseases

20

CDC

what is the main source of epidemiological info in the US

21

ex: of things that cause multiple diseases

s. pyogenes ( scarlet fever, strep throat, tss)

22

evolution of new strains

inappropraite use of antibiotics

changes in weath patters

modern trasnportation

ecological disaster, war

animal control

public health failure

contributing factors to new infectious diseases

23

sign

change in the body that can be measured, objective

24

syndrome

specific group of signs and symptoms that accomany a disease

25

passive, carrying things on feet

mechanical vector-

26

endocritis

example of a subclinical disease

27

botulism, tetanus, cholera, typhoid fever

ex of things in nonliving reservoirs

28

pathogen reproduced within the vector

biological vector

29

ex: of contagious disease

measles, chicken pox

30

lactobacillus

common thing used in probiotics

31

s. pyogenes ( scarlet fever, strep throat, tss)

ex: of things that cause multiple diseases

32

prevalance

what is an indicator of hot serious a disease is and how long it affects a population

33

is incidence used for old/new cases

new

34

prevalence

fraction of the population having a specific disease at a given time

35

what is an indicator of hot serious a disease is and how long it affects a population

prevalance

36

prevalence uses old/new cases

both

37

herd immunity

immunity in most of the population

38

is incidence or prevelance normaly in smaller chunks of time

incidence

39

sporadic disease

disease that occurs occasionallyy in the population

40

endemic disease

disease constantly present in a population

41

epidemic disease

disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time

42

pandemic disease

worldwid epidemic

43

ex: of sporadic

cholera after earthquake

44

ex: of endemic

cold and flu

45

ex: of epidemic

outbreak of AIDS, bad flue seasons

46

ex: of pandemic

AIDS, original H1N1

47

acute disease

symptoms develop rapidly

48

chronic disease

disease develops slowly

49

subacute disease

symptoms between acute and chronic

50

latent disease

disease with a period of no symptoms when a patient is inactive

51

no

during incubation period, do you exhibit any signs

52

local infection

pathogens limited to a small area of the body

53

systemic infection

an infection throughout the body

54

focal infection

systemic infection that began as a local infection

55

bacteremia

bacteria in the blood

56

septicemia

growth of bacteria in the blood

57

toxemia

toxins in the blood

58

viremia

viruses in the blood

59

how do focal infections occur

through the blood

60

what do bacteria need to grow in the blood

iron

61

subclinical disease

no noticeable signs or symptoms

62

why don't we see a lot of measles anymore

heard immunity

63

example of a subclinical disease

endocritis

64

icubation

prodromal

period illness

period decline

period of convalescence

stages of development

65

what occurs during prodromal period

begin to fill mild signs of illness

66

during incubation period, do you exhibit any signs

no

67

period of convalescence

recovery period

68

when are you be infectious?

all stages

69

when does the highest infection rate occur

period of illness

70

reservoir

continual source of infection

71

ex of nonliving reservoirs

soil and water

72

what are zoonoses

reservoirs you get from animals

73

ex of zoonoses

influenze, rabies

74

ex of things in nonliving reservoirs

botulism, tetanus, cholera, typhoid fever

75

indrect trasmission is spread by

fomites

76

what are fomites

inanimate objects

77

vehicle

transmission by inanimate reservoir

78

ex: of vectors

fleas, tickes, mosquitos

79

mechanical vector-

passive, carrying things on feet

80

biological vector

pathogen reproduced within the vector

81

nosocomial infection is from

hospital

82

percentage of patients that get nosocomial infections

5-15

83

things that contribute to socomial infections

microrganisms in hospital

comprised host

chain of trasnmission

84

8th leading cause of death

socomial infections

85

most common nosocomial infection

UTI

86

second most common nosocomial infection

surgical site infection

87

thhird most common nosocomial infection

lower respiratory infection

88

best way to prevent nosocomial infections

handwashing

89

nosocomial diarrhea is caused by

clostridium difficile

90

contributing factors to new infectious diseases

evolution of new strains

inappropraite use of antibiotics

changes in weath patters

modern trasnportation

ecological disaster, war

animal control

public health failure

91

epidemiology

tracking and studying disease

92

descriptive

collecting information after an outbreak, retrospective, looks at occurring of a disease

93

analytical

comparison of diseased and health group

94

ex: of analytical

case control

cohort

95

case reportin

report a notifiable idsease

96

case control

compare people with the disease and without the disease, determine predisposing condition

97

cohort

exposure versus non exposure, understand risks to various exposures

98

morbidity

incidence of a specific notifiable disease

99

mortality

death from a notifiable disease

100

what is the main source of epidemiological info in the US

CDC