Applied Microbiology

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Microbiology
Chapter 26
microorganisms found in food, preventing disease transmission and food spoilage,microorganisms as food and in food production,beer,wine, and spirits,industrial and pharmaceutical microbiology,useful organic products,microbiological mining,microbiological waste disposal
updated 6 years ago by Chata928
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1

Claviceps purpurea

known as ergot in raw grains, hallucinations or death if eaten

2

Aspergillus

infect peanuts and some grains produce aflatoxins,can be potent mutagens and carcinogens

3

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

produce large amounts of carbon dioxide, makes bread rise

4

Rhizopus nigricans

most common bread mold, but several species of Penicillium,Aspergillus,and Monilia also thrive in bread

5

M.sitophila

pink bread mold,impossible to eliminate in large scale bakeries

6

Bacillus species

hydrolize proteins and starch and give bread a stringy texture

7

Pseudomonas fluorescens,Salmonella,shigella,Entamoeba histolytica,Ascaris, etc.

can be found on surface of fruits and vegetables, plant waxes release antimicrobial substances to prevent internal invasion

8

Cantaloupes

netted surfaces develop biofilms of Salmonella

9

surface pasteurization

1.melons immersed in 169 F water for 3 min

2.sealed in a plastic bag and rapidly cooled in an ice-water bath

3.shelf life is extended

10

Erwinia cartovora

leafy vegetables and potatos are susceptible to this bacterial soft rot

11

Phytophthora infestans

caused the Irish potato famine of 1846, reclassified as red alga

12

Pseudomonas syringae

bacteria that infects corn,bean,and tomato plants

13

Fusarium

causes soft rot and cracking of tomato skins, alos susceptible are cucumbers and melons

14

Rhizopus

breaks down pectin and can turn tomatoes into a bag of water

15

Leuconostoc/Lactobacillus

fresh fruit juice mold,yeast,and bacteria

16

Monilia fructicola

stone fruits, like peaches, can be destroyed overnight by brown rot

17

Penicillum expansum

grows on apples, produces toxin patulin,easily contaminates cider..other Penicillium species produce blue and green mold on fruits

18

Slaughter house diseases

1.inspectors focus on heart and surface of carcass,but not every cut of meat

2.Mad Cow disease(BSE),abscesses,pneumonia,septicemia,enteritis,toxemia,nephritis,pericarditis.

3.Refirgerated meats can get:Cladosporium herbarum,Mycelia of Rhizopus/Mucor produce a fluffy white growth

4.Pseudomonas mephitica causes green discoloration

19

bone stink

Clostridium species cause putrefaction deep in the tissues of large carcasses

20

ground meat

1.contain helminth eggs and large # of lactobacilli and molds.

2.gridners for pokr must be separate than for other meats,due to Trichinella spiralis

3.Lactobacilli produce acids in ground meat that help, to a point, retard the grwoth of enteric pathogens

21

poultry

1.half of infections traced to Salmonella and a fourth to clsotridium perfringens and Staphylococcus aureus

2.Freesing does not get rid of Salmonells,Pseudomonas and other gram-negative bacteria cause sliem and offensive odors

3.Egg shells are porous and can be contaminated,must be cooked thoroughly

22

fish and shellfish

1.Photobacterium phosphoreum will make seafood glow, seafood is not fresh

2.Clams,oysters are filter feeders and carry Salmonella typhimurium/Vibrio choleae

3. Shrimp,lobster,crabs carry enteric pathogens like Clostridium botulinum..growers add antibiotics, people sometimes think they are allergic to seafood but allergy can be due to antibiotics

23

milk

1.E.coli gives milk a fecal flavor

2.acinetobacter johnsoni,during the summer months, causes a viscous slime to form in milk.

3. organisms that sour the milk are S.lactis and Lactobacillus

4. Dairy herds are tested for tuberculosis,and other microorganisms

24

Other edible substances

1.sugar-bacteria loves sugar and can rapidly grow and destroy food

2.honey-causes "floppy baby syndrome",due to spore of Clostridium botulinum it contains

3.Coffee- Hemileia vastatrix,a fungus, can create rust and destroy crop

4.Tea-leaves allowed to become moist can get contaminated with Aspergillus and Penicillium molds

25

canning

1.use of moist heat under pressure,can cause botulism

2. do not store in hot temperatures,can produce acid and give sour flavor and make peole sick

3. thermophilic anerobic spoilage-spoilage which produces sour flavor

4. flat sour spoilage-spoilage due to spores,does not cause cans to bulge

5. mesophilic spoilage-improper sealing during canning

26

Refrigeration

1.never thaw and refreeze

2.does not prevent growth of psychrophilic organisms that can cause food poisoning

3. as soon as food is thawing, organims begin to grow

27

Drying and lyophilization

1.drying stops microbial growth,but does not kill organisms in or on food

2.lyophilization-involves drying frozen food in a vacuu,used in instant coffee and yeast

28

irradiation

1.nonionizing-limited by poor penetrating ower,UV radiation effective as a sanitizing agent for food-processing equipment/other surfaces

2.ionizing-such as gamma rays,great penetrating ability and is microbicidial

3. kills microorganisms, but does not cause the food itself to become radioactive

29

Chemical additives

1.salt-prevents growth of clostridia,dehydrates bacteria

2.acids-benzoic,srobic,etc. inhibit grwoth of yeast/fungi in margarine,fruit juice,breads

3.ozone-treats water,kills coliform in shellfish

4.sulfur dioxide-kills undesired yeast in wineries

5.nitrates/nitrites-supress microbial growth

30

yeast,algae, and bacteria as food

1.yeast- good source of protein and vitamins

2.algae-can be grwon for human consumption,even on treated sewage

3. bacteria-Spirulina,grow on alkaline lakes has tons of protein

31

food production

1.Saccharomyces cerevisiae-yeast used as leavening agent in bread

2. Streptococcus cremoris-pasteurize skim milk and allowing fermentation to occur

3.cheese-lactic acid bacteria and rennin added to milk, curd portion is used to make cheese,whey is the waste portion

32

Saccharomyces

are the fermenters for all alcoholic beverages